Which term describes the degree to which an element attracts electrons?
Which terms describe two atoms when they form a bond in which electrons are completely transferred from one atom to the other?
Which of the following statements is true of the bonds in a water molecule?
Which of the following statements is not true of most cellular redox reactions?
What kind of bond is formed when lithium and fluorine combine to form lithium fluoride?
Gaseous hydrogen burns in the presence of oxygen to form water:
2H2 + O2 → 2H2 O + energy
Which molecule is oxidized and what kind of bond is formed?
Which of the following best describes the main purpose of the combined processes of glycolysis and cellular respiration?
In the combined processes of glycolysis and cellular respiration, what is consumed and what is produced?
Why does the oxidation of organic compounds by molecular oxygen to produce CO2 and water release free energy?
Which of the following statements describes the results of this reaction?
C6H12O6 + 6 O2 → 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + Energy
When a glucose molecule loses a hydrogen atom as the result of an oxidation-reduction reaction, the molecule becomes
When a molecule of NAD+ (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) gains a hydrogen atom (not a proton), the molecule becomes
The oxygen consumed during cellular respiration is involved directly in which process or event?
Why are carbohydrates and fats considered high energy foods?
From the following compounds involved in cellular respiration, choose those that are the net inputs and net outputs of glycolysis.
Acetyl CoA Formation
In acetyl CoA formation, the carbon-containing compound from glycolysis is oxidized to produce acetyl CoA. From the following compounds involved in cellular respiration, choose those that are the net inputs and net outputs of acetyl CoA formation.
In the last stage of cellular respiration, oxidative phosphorylation, all of the reduced electron carriers produced in the previous stages are oxidized by oxygen via the electron transport chain. The energy from this oxidation is stored in a form that is used by most other energy-requiring reactions in cells.
From the following compounds involved in cellular respiration, choose those that are the net inputs and net outputs of oxidative phosphorylation.
Cellular locations of the four stages of cellular respiration
Each of the four stages of cellular respiration occurs in a specific location inside or outside the mitochondria. These locations permit precise regulation and partitioning of cellular resources to optimize the utilization of cellular energy.
Citric Acid Cycle
In the citric acid cycle (also known as the Krebs cycle), acetyl CoA is completely oxidized. From the following compounds involved in cellular respiration, choose those that are the net inputs and net outputs of the citric acid cycle.
Redox (oxidation-reduction) reactions in glycolysis
In glycolysis, as in all the stages of cellular respiration, the transfer of electrons from electron donors to electron acceptors plays a critical role in the overall conversion of the energy in foods to energy in ATP. These reactions involving electron transfers are known as oxidation-reduction, or redox, reactions.
Energy from glycolysis
Among the products of glycolysis, which compounds contain energy that can be used by other biological reactions?
pyruvate, ATP, and NADH
ATP is the main product of cellular respiration that contains energy that can be used by other cellular processes. Some ATP is made in glycolysis. In addition, the NADH and pyruvate produced in glycolysis are used in subsequent steps of cellular respiration to make even more ATP.
The ATP that is generated in glycolysis is produced by substrate-level phosphorylation, a very different mechanism than the one used to produce ATP during oxidative phosphorylation. Phosphorylation reactions involve the addition of a phosphate group to another molecule.
In glycolysis, ATP molecules are produced by _____.
In glycolysis, what starts the process of glucose oxidation?
Which of the following describes the process of glycolysis?
Substrate-level phosphorylation accounts for approximately what percentage of the ATP formed by the reactions of glycolysis?
In glycolysis, for each molecule of glucose oxidized to pyruvate
A molecule that is phosphorylated