What are some of the similarities between eukaryotes and prokaryotes?
What organizational patterns do eukaryotic and bacterial cells share?
Similar organizational patterns: Cytoplasm
Structural Differences: Membrane bound organelles Eukaryotes have membrane-enclosed organelles
Structural Differences: Protein/Lipid Transport
Structural Difference: Mitochondria
Structural Difference: Cytoskeleton
Structural Similarity: Flagella
Structural Similarity: Cell wall
Comparing: Genetic Organization
Comparing: Cell structure and transport
Classification uses a hierarchal system. What is it?
In the mid-1700's, who published Systema Naturae, establishing a uniform system for naming organisms?
Each scientific name includes two words, the ____ and the ____ ____ that together make up the _____ name.
In 1959, who developed the five kingdom system, giving bacteria their own kingdom? Name the five kingdoms.
The three domain system was proposed by ____ ____, based on data from ____ ____ ___. What are the three domains?
Most microbial agents are in the micrometer size range. What is the length of most bacterial and archaeal cells?
Light Microscopy-what is it used for, how many lenses does it have, and what are they?
is used to observe most microorganisms.
-Visible light passes through multiple lenses and through the specimen.
-Light microscopes usually have at least 3 lenses: low power, high power, and oil-immersion
-The lens system must have high resolving power to see the specimen clearly.
*only under oil can you see bacteria clearly but you have to stain them as well.
What is the simple stain technique?
Describe the Gram stain technique. (Differential Stain)
Describe Acid-fast technique. (Differential Stain)
What are the 3 criteria used to classify organisms into 5 kingdoms?
1. The type of cell: (only 2 types Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cell)
2. Number of cells: (unicellular- kingdom protista- unicellular eukaryotes) and multicellular-everything else.
3. Type of nutrition: Autotrophic nutrition (photosynthesis=kingdom Plantae) everything else is a heterotroph (other feeders) these fall into two categories: ingestive (kingdom Animalia) and absorptive (kingdom Fungi)
Describe Endospore Stain.
Describe morphology, arrangement, and gram: Staphylococcus aureus
Describe morphology, arrangement, and gram: Clostridium sporogenes
Describe morphology, arrangement, and gram: Corynebacterium xerosis
Describe morphology, arrangement, and gram: Mycobacterium smegmatis
(The study of Fungi is called mycology)
Phylum-Kingdom Protista (Protozoans)
(Animal like protists are called Protozoans)
Phylum-Kingdom Animalia (worms=helminths)
Kingdom Fungi Molds
Zygomycota-zygospores-Rhizopus nigrocans-not a pathogen, has fibers, black bread cotton white mold.
Basidiomycota-basidiospores-mushrooms-not a pathogen
Ascomycota-ascospores-Penicillium notatum (blue-green mold), Aspergillus niger (black mold *pathogen)
Candida albicans-mold in humans, yeast infection if too much
Saccharyces cervisine-brewer's yeast
Kingdom Protista Sickness Examples
***Chapter 4 Starts Here***
The domain _____ contains some of the most studied prokaryotes.
The domain Archaea contains organisms with diverse physiologies. Name them.
Prokaryotes can be distinguished by their cell _____ and ______.
A rod shape is called _____. What arrangements does it come in?
A spherical shape is called _____. What arrangements does it come in?
Spiral-shaped bacteria can appear as ______, ____, or _____
Cell structure organizes cell function. Name some functions.
External structure: Pili, Conjugation Pili
Prokaryotic ____ are long appendages extending from the cell surface.
Bacteria exhibit chemotaxis. What does this mean?
Spirochetes contain _____, which move the cell through torsion exerted on the cell by endoflagellar rotation.
All bacteria have an outer mucus layer external to the cell wall called ______. If this layer is thin it is called a ____. If it is thick it is called a _____.
Glycocalyx- adhering layer of polysaccharides (and sometimes small proteins) - It protects the cells from the environment and allows them to attach to surfaces
Thin layer- Slime layer
Thick layer- Capsule - Extreme velent; can cause extreme illness (hard for wbc phagocytosis to occur; too slimy and thick) Causes disease like Klebsiella pneumoniae (#1 cause nosocomial hospital death for elderly; acquired pneumonia)
Most bacterial and archaeal cells have a cell envelope. Give some characteristics of the cell wall.
Gram + have what kind of cell wall?
Gram - have what kind of cell wall?
Have 2D peptidoglycan layer and no teichoic acid. Has an outer membrane, separated from the cell membrane by the periplasmic space.
-The outer membrane contains proteins called porins that selectively allow small molecules into the periplasmic space.
-Much more difficult to deal with medically.
The archaeal cell wall also provides mechanical strength. What kind of cell wall does it have?
The __ _____ represents the interfere between the cell environment and the cell cytoplasm.
What kind of functions can membrane proteins perform or aid in?
The archaeal cell membrane differs from bacterial and eukaryal membranes. How?
What is a nucleiod?
Describe a bacterial chromosome.
Plasmids are found in many bacterial and archaeal cells. What are they?
What can plasmids be used for?
What are the two types of plasmids?
What are three spirochete examples? and What do they cause?
Other sub compartments exist in the cell cytoplasm such as ribosomes, what are they used for?
What do magnetosomes contain?
What do cytoskeletal proteins regulate?
**Chapter 5 Starts Here**
What is binary fission?
What is the generation (or doubling) time?
Microbial Growth Progress: Lag Phase
Microbial Growth Progress: Logarithmic (log) phase
Microbial Growth Progress: Decline (exponential death) Phase
What do Endospores respond to?
What happens to endospores when environmental conditions are favorable again?
What are some physical factors that optimal prokaryotic growth is dependent on?
What is thioglycollate broth used for?
Oxygen: Facultative Anaerobes
What do Capnophilic bacteria (microaerophils) require?
Culture media are used to grow microbes and measure their growth. What are the two basic types?
What is a complex medium?
What is a selective medium?
What are two examples of selective medium?
1. Crystal Violet Agar-plates (absorbed well by Gram +) selective not differential, to select gram- bacteria
2. Eosin Methylene blue agar plates (totally inhibit Gram +) both selective and differential. Selects gram - bacteria. White and clear colonies all gram -. Metallic green colonies is also gram - but this confirms the presence of E.coli. EMB Agar used only to confirm presence of E. coli.
What is a differential medium?
What are two examples of differential medium?
1. EMB agar- all the colors are gram -, on exam * EMB is an example of differential & selective media; used to confirm presence of E. coli.
2. Sheep's Blood Agar; selective & differential
-No hemolysis=gamma (V) hemolysis
-Partial hemolysis=alpha (looks like fish) hemolysis
-Complete hemolysis=beta (B) hemolysis
**LOOK AT PICTURE IN NOTEBOOK PG 25**
What happens if you have Beta (complete) hemolysis?
When do we use Chocolate Agar?
Define pour-plate isolation method.
What is the streak-plate isolation method?
Population can be measured in several ways. What are they?