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created 3 years ago by raheen913
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1

bacteria

single celled, no nucleus
can be seen from microscopes
either a parasite or live independently.
basic shapes include spiral, coccus and bacillus. Bacteria multiply themselves by cell division (binary fission).
Antibiotics can usually kill them.
An example of bacteria is meningitis and pneumonia.
digestive, absorptive photosynthetic, chemosynthetic

2

fungi

eukarytoic,, spore producing organism, can be seen with microscope
and can live as single celled yeast or as a larger multi-cellular mold. It will reproduce by by decaying matter.. It will live by absorbing certain nutrients from any organic matter. Fungi include molds, mildews, mushrooms and yeasts. Fungi can cause disease in immune suppressed people, such as jock itch and ringworm. Penicillin is made from a fungus

3

Viruses

microscopically small and are the simplest microbiological entity. A virus is not an independent living organism and needs a host cell to replicate. They are sub-microscopic parasitic particles of nucleic acid (RNA or DNA) that are wrapped in protein. Viruses are immune to antibiotics and are spread in the air or by direct contact. They can lead to serious or sometimes deadly diseases, such as AIDS.

4

Protozoa

single celled organism with nucleus
which is able to move (motitlity)
feed on any organic compound of carbon and nitrogen, for example an amoeba. They can be parasites or live independently. They are usually found in water or soil. Protozoa have different shapes and will produce asexually. They can inhabit the human body as a parasite, for example in the large intestine
engulf and digest other cells internaly

5

Algae

eukarytoic, unicellular photosynthetic organisms of a group which live mostly in water. they reproduce asexually by photosynthesis

6

what are microbes

a microorganism, especially a bacterium causing disease or fermentation
ex: viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoa, algae

7

what are the 3 domains

bacteria
archaea
eucarya

8

how are microbes imp to the health of the planet

other life cannot exist without microbes
impact on food, recycling, biotechnology

9

what is the composition of an atom

smallest unit of matter
consist of tiny nucleus with moving electrons
nucleus contains protons with positive charge, equal to the magnitude of electron with a neg charge.
Nucleus also contains neutrons with same mass but neutral charge (no charge)

10

how do atoms differ

the difference in protons numbers identifies each atom
they can differ with isotopes or atomic mass also

11

what is involved in chemical reaction

atoms or molecules coming together in a collision
and
transfer or sharing of electrons

12

what is octet rule

The octet rule states that elements gain or lose electrons to attain an electron configuration of the nearest noble gas.(8 in outer/valence shell)
2 first shell of nucleus
then 8, 8,

13

how do chemical reactions occur

collision between molecules and energy

14

how do you speed up chemical reaction

increase temperature,
lowering rate of volume,
using a catalyst
pressure of gas increases
concentration of particles increased (shrink container)
solid reactants are broken into smaller pieces

15

difference between organic and inorganic

organic: molecule with carbon, also has carbohydrate, protein, lipid and nucleic acid
Inorganic: moleucle without carbon, has water, Co2, nitrogen, sulfur

16

different kinds of bonds, .. order of strenghts

1. covalent bond (strogest)
2. ionic bond (strong)
3. hydrogen bond (weak)
4. hydrophobic bond (weaker)
5. van der wals forces (only when 2 atoms are very very close)

17

what bonds occur between (hydrogen and oxygen in H2O) (NA+,and CL- in NaCL,) H2 gas?

Hydrogen and oxygen in water ( polar covalent bond)
NA+ and CL- in NAcl - Ionic bond
H2 gas- covalent

18

function of protein

part of cellular structure, enzyme, direct chemical reactions

19

what determines function of protein

3D shape from folding due to amino acid sequence.

20

function of lipid

storing energy (ex gylcerides)
(energy is stored in chemical bonds, carbs, protein, fats are converted to triglycerides and stored in adipose)
phosopholipids make up the cell membrane of cells

21

what are lipids

(fats) non polar hydrophobic and insoluble in polar solvents such as water

22

types of lipids

glycerides, saturated, unsaturated, triglycerides

23

function of carbohydrates

provide energy for body (especially brain and nervous system)
An enzyme called amylase helps break down carbohydrates into glucose (blood sugar), which is used for energy by the body.

24

what breaks down carbohydrates to glucose?

enzyme called amylase

25

function of nucleic acid

make genetic information in living things,
consist of DNA and RNA
The main function is to store and transmit genetic information and use that information to direct the synthesis of new protein.

26

subunits of protein, lipid, carbohydrate, nucleic acid

amino acid, fatty acid, monosaccharides, nucleotides

27

how is DNA structuraly different from RNA

DNA is double stranded, has sugar deoxyribose, has the bases adenine, thymine, guanine, cytosine
RNA is single stranded, has sugar ribose, has adenine, uracil, guanine, cytosine

28

why is water so crucial for life?

is the best solvent, its a polar molecule,temperature stabilizing effects, heat capacity, surface tension, ice floats

29

what are the key differences in composition between the different bacterial cell wall types

Cell wall of Algae - cellulose
Cell wall of Fungi - chitin
cell wall of bacteria - polydoglycan
cell wall of archaea - lack polydoglycan

30

main difference between eukaryotes and prokaryotes

prokaryotes do not have nucleus, mitochondria or any cell bound membrane
Eukaryotes do...

31

How can archaea be distinguished from eubacteria?

archaea are found in extreme enviornemnts like volacono, lava places, have lipid membrane, no fatty acid layer, cell wall-pseudopeptidoglycan (nonpeptidoglycan)

32

what are the main organelles in eukaryotes and their function

cell wall-ridig external coat
cell membrane - encloses cytoplasms of cell
nucleus-holds genetic codes
ER and ribosomes - protein synthesis
Golgi- modifying, packaging, transport of protein
cholorplast - contains chlorphyll in plants to carry out photosynthesis
mitochondria- generates most cells energy
plastid- pigment that stores starch

33

what are the main organelles of prokaryotes and their function

ribosome- protein synthesis
inclusion-produce and store stuff
plasmid-small circular double stranded DNA and protein
fimbraie/pillus-
chromosome
cell wall-peptidoglycan
capsule/slime layer-protect orgnaisms from entering
flagellum- tail for swimmin/motility
cytoplasm-gel liquid
nuceleoid region-has plasmid/no nucleus
NO ER, NO GOLGI

34

difference between spores and endospores

endospores are from bacterial group. they dormant(inactive), tough and non reproductive structure,live in soil and water where they can survive for longer period,they ensure the survival of bacteria during environmental stress, present in gram-positive bacteria, heat resistant
spores are eukaryotes, survive in unfavorable conditions for extended periods of time, considered life cycle of plants and algae
one cell makes one spore

35

external structures of bacterial cell wall

glyococalyx-slime or capsule ( for attachment or slip away from phagocytes)
flagella- movevemnt
fimbrai/pilli - attachment in mucous of another cell

36

what is diffusion

movement of solutes or molecules from higher concentration to low concentration
ex; simple or facilitated

37

osmosis

diffusion of water molecules from low to high concentration

38

how are molecules transported across the cell membrane

by active transport(atp needed) or facilitated diffusion(no atp)

39

facilated diffusion

no energy or ATP needed, use channel protein carrier, selective passage

40

active transport

ATP needed, against concentration gradient

41

what are enzymes

proteins, (few with RNA and proteins) ( some has only RNA)

42

what are pathways

multistep reactions

43

basic properties of enzymes

speed up reactions
not consumed in reactions/reausable
very specific becoz of shape

44

how do enzymes affect chemical reactions

enzymes are catalysts. Catalysts help reactions occur more quickly (increase rate of reactions), or at unfavorable conditions (wrong pH, wrong temperature)
or lower the activation energy for a reaction. Catalysts are not consumed by the reaction, so are free to continue catalyzing
KEY WORD : catalysts, lowers activation energy for reaction, imp in 3D shape

45

factors that influence enzyme activity

1. shape: temp, ph, ionic condition, absense of inhibitor, water, chemical modification
2. collision rate: temp, concentration of reactants and enzymes

46

what can you adjust in enzyme activity

only inhibitors and chemical modification.. everything else stays the same

47

what determines the specificity of enzymes

structure (lock and key mechanism)
where the substrate (this substance the enzyme acts on) is the lock and the enzyme is the key.
so only the enzymes with the structure that fits perfectly into the substrate can act on the substrate.
hence specific enzymes act on specific substrates.

48

competitive and noncompetitive inhibitors

competitive: bind to same site as substrate (compete for binding), no reaction because it is stuck to site
noncompetitive: changes shape of active site by binding to other side (allosteric site)
result in nihitibion reaction only for noncompetitive

49

what happens during denaturation

the 3-D structure of protein get disturb or get opened (uncoil) by breaking of hydrogen bonds. happens during heat
KEY-looses shape

50

what are the conditions that can cause denaturation of proteins

heat
ion concentration (ph)
water concentration (low)
chemical alterations(bonding breaks)

51

what is the universsal energy molecule of the cell

ATP (adenosine tri phosphate)

52

what is the role of oxygen in fermentation, aeorbic respiration, anerobic respiration?

see notebook

53

what is the final chemical product after the breakdown of glucose during respiration, fermentation

Fermentation - 2 ATP from one glucose
Respiration - 36 ATP from one glucose

54

which part of respiration, fermentation, produces carbon dioxide?

Carbon dioxide is released during two phases of cellular respiration. The first phase that carbon dioxide leaves is during pyruvate decarboxylation. The second time CO2 is released is during the Kreb's cycle. 1 CO2 leaves during the decarboxylation and two leave during the Kreb's cycle. Since there are two pyruvate per glucose molecule, everything happens twice. This makes a total of 6 CO2 released per glucose molecule.

55

what is required to carry out glycolysis, making of fermentation products, krebs cycle, etc

glucose

56

Glycolysis

1-Glycolysis is part of both aerobic and anaerobic respiration.
2-Glycolysis splits glucose, a six-carbon compound, into two pyruvate molecules, each of which has three carbons.
3-In glycolysis, a 2 ATP investment results in a 4 ATP payoff.
4-Unlike the rest of aerobic respiration, which takes place in the mitochondria, glycolysis takes place in the cytoplasm of the cell.
5-Unlike the rest of aerobic respiration, glycolysis does not require oxygen
Glycolysis - C6H12O6 + 2ATP + 2NAD+2pyruvate + 4ATP + 2NADH

57

Kreb's cycle

1-The Krebs cycle results in 2 ATP molecules for each glucose molecule run through glycolysis.
2-The Krebs cycle sends energy-laden NADH and FADH2 molecules on to the next step in respiration, the electron transport chain. It does not export carbon molecules for further processing.
-The Krebs cycle takes place in the mitochondrial matrix, the innermost compartment of the mitochondria.
4-Though the Krebs cycle does not directly require oxygen, it can only take place when oxygen is present because it relies on by-products from the electron transport chain, which requires oxygen.
5-The Krebs cycle is therefore an aerobic process
Krebs cycle: 2acetyl-CoA + 2oxaloacetate4CO2 + 6NADH + 2FADH2 + 2ATP + 2oxaloacetate

58

electron transport chain

1-Four ATP molecules are produced by glycolysis and the Krebs cycle combined. The electron transport chain produces 34 ATP.
2-The electron transport chain occurs across the inner membrane of the mitochondria.
3-The electron transport chain requires oxygen.
ETC: 10NADH + 2FADH234ATP

59

lactic acid ferementation

Lactic acid fermentation is common in fungi and bacteria. Lactic acid fermentation also takes place in human muscle cells when strenuous exercise causes temporary oxygen shortages.
pyruvate + NADHlactic acid + NAD+

60

alcohol fermentation

Alcoholic fermentation is the source of ethyl alcohol present in wines and liquors. It also accounts for the bubbles in bread. When yeast in bread dough runs out of oxygen, it goes through alcoholic fermentation, producing carbon dioxide. These carbon dioxide bubbles create spaces in the dough and cause it to rise.
pyruvate + NADHethyl alcohol + NAD+ + CO2

61

In aerobic respiration carbohydrates are ultimately broken down into:

carbon dioxide (co2)

62

Most ATP in eukaryotic cells is produced in the:

Mitochondria

63

Most ATP produced in aerobic respiration occurs in the process of:

chemiosmosis

64

In aerobic respiration, the energy in 1 mole of glucose is capable of producing how many ATP molecules:

38 x (6.02 x 1023) molecules of ATP

65

products of glycolysis include

pyruvate, NADH, ATP

66

In glycolysis the most reduced compound formed is:

Pyruvate

67

In glycolysis, the activation of glucose is accomplished by:

ATP

68

Products of the Krebs cycle include:

carbon dioxide, NADH, FADH2

69

The final electron acceptor in aerobic respiration is:

oxygen

70

In the presence of oxygen, all cells synthesize ATP via the process of glycolysis. Many cells also can metabolize pyruvate if oxygen is not present, via the process of:

fermentation

71

The net result of the breakdown of glucose in glycolysis and fermentation is the production of:

2 ATP

72

Which stage of aerobic respiration requires ATP?

glycolysis

73

Which stage of aerobic respiration requires CO2?

none

74

Which stage of aerobic respiration produces ATP and NADH and releases CO2?

Krebs cycle

75

The high concentration of protons in the inner mitochondrial space relative to the mitochondrial matrix represents:

potential energy

76

As protons flow through the ______, energy is released and exploited to combine ADP and inorganic phosphate to form ATP.

ATP synthase

77

photosynthesis

plant cells convert light energy into chemical energy that is stored in sugars and other organic compounds.

78

chlorophyll

green color pigment in plants

79

How is ATP generated in ETC

ATP is generated as H+ moves down its concentration gradient through a special enzyme called ATP synthase

80

Where do ETC occur

in mitochondria

81

where does kreb cycle occur

in mitochondria

82

where does glycolysis occur

in cytoplasm

83

where does aerobic respiration occur

in glycolysis, kreb cycle, and ETC

84

GLycolysis produces:

4 ATP's and 2 NADH, but uses 2 ATP's in the process for a net of 2 ATP and 2 NADH

85

products released during transisition stage (before krebs cycle)

2 NADH's are generated (1 per pyruvate)
2 CO2 are released (1 per pyruvate)

86

what is generated during krebs cycle

6 NADH's are generated (3 per Acetyl CoA that enters)
2 FADH2 is generated (1 per Acetyl CoA that enters)
2 ATP are generated (1 per Acetyl CoA that enter
4 CO2 are released (2 per Acetyl CoA that enters)

87

what is produced together the transistion stage and krebs cycle

8 NADH
2 FADH2
2 ATP
6 CO2

88

what is the goal of ETC

to break down NADH and FADH2, pumping H+ into the outer compartment of the mitochondria.
ATP is generated as H+ moves down its concentration gradient through a special enzyme called ATP synthase

89

building blocks of organisms

cells

90

During which metabolic stage is glucose broken down to pyruvate?
(A) Glycolysis
(B) The citric acid cycle
(C) The electron transport chain
(D) Oxidative phosphorylation

glycolysis

91

What molecule is essential for aerobic respiration to take place?
(A) Nitrogen
(B) Oxygen
(C) Ethanol
(D) Carbon dioxide

oxygen

92

Which of the following is not one of the three major macromolecule components of food?
(A) Carbohydrates
(B) Lipids
(C) Oxygen
(D) Proteins

oxygen

93

Which of the following molecules contains three phosphate groups?
(A) AMP
(B) ADP
(C) APP
(D) ATP

ATP

94

Which of the following is not a coenzyme?
(A) CoA
(B) FAD
(C) ATP
(D) NAD

ATP

95

Organisms that acquire energy through photosynthesis are called which of the following?
(A) Autotrophs
(B) Chemotrophs
(C) Prototrophs
(D) Phototrophs

PHototrophs

96

In which protein complex in the inner mitochondrial membrane is FADH2 oxidized?
(A) I
(B) II
(C) III
(D) V

II

97

Organisms that acquire energy through ingestion of food are called which of the following?
(A) Autotrophs
(B) Chemotrophs
(C) Prototrophs
(D) Phototrophs

Chemotrophs

98

Chemotrophs require _________ and produce _________ while phototrophs require _________ and produce _________.
(A) Water, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, oxygen.
(B) Oxygen, carbon dioxide, carbon dioxide, oxygen.
(C) Oxygen, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, water.
(D) Oxygen, water, phosphate, nitrogen

o2 co2 co2 o2

99

In which protein complex in the inner mitochondrial membrane is ATP synthesized?
(A) I
(B) II
(C) IV
(D) V

V

100

Metabolic reactions that synthesize molecules are classified as _________ while metabolic reactions that degrade molecules are classified as _________.
(A) Chemotrophic
(B) Phototrophic
(C) Anabolic
(D) Catabolic

anaebolic

101

What type of metabolic reaction involves a loss of electrons from the molecule involved?
(A) Oxidation
(B) Reduction
(C) Phosphorylation
(D) Isomerization

oxidation

102

What molecule is produced when oxygen is reduced by the electrons in the electron transport chain?
(A) Hydrogen
(B) Water
(C) NADH
(D) FADH2

water

103

What type of metabolic reaction involves a gain of electrons by the molecule involved?
(A) Oxidation
(B) Reduction
(C) Phosphorylation
(D) Isomerization

reduction

104

How many molecules of carbon dioxide are generated during the Kreb cycle?
(A) 1
(B) 2
(C) 3
(D) 4

2

105

What type of metabolic reaction does not change the atomic make-up of the molecule involved?
(A) Oxidation
(B) Reduction
(C) Phosphorylation
(D) Isomerization

isomerization

106

What type of metabolic reaction involves the transfer of a phosphate group?
(A) Oxidation
(B) Reduction
(C) Phosphorylation
(D) Isomerization

phosopholyration

107

Which of the following is not a component of the chemotrophic respiratory pathway?
(A) Glycolysis
(B) The citric acid cycle
(C) Photosynthesis
(D) Oxidative phosphorylation

photosynthesis

108

What is the name of the molecule generated in the final step of the Kreb cycle and is also used in the first step?
(A) Oxaloacetate
(B) Pyruvate
(C) Acetyl-CoA
(D) NADH

oxalocetate

109

Respiration that occurs without oxygen is classified as which of the following
(A) Chemotrophic
(B) Phototrophic
(C) Aerobic
(D) Anaerobic

anerorbic

110

What is the main cellular structure involved in respiration?
(A) Nucleus
(B) Golgi apparatus
(C) Mitochondria
(D) ER

mitochondria

111

Which of the following does not accurately describe the glycolytic pathway?
(A) Anabolic
(B) Catabolic
(C) Chemotrophic
(D) Metabolic

anabolic

112

How many carbon atoms are found in one molecule of glucose?
(A) 1
(B) 3
(C) 6
(D) 9

6

113

What is the end product of aerobic glycolysis?
(A) Citrate
(B) Pyruvate
(C) ATP
(D) NADH

pyruvate

114

In what part of the cell does glycolysis take place?
(A) Cytosol
(B) Mitochondria
(C) Golgi apparatus
(D) ER

cytosol

115

An enzyme that catalyzes a reaction that adds a phosphate group to a molecule is called which of the following?
(A) Aldolase
(B) Enolase
(C) Kinase
(D) Phosphorylase

kinase

116

Which of the following molecules is not either oxidized or reduced during electron flow through the electron transport chain?
(A) NADH
(B) FADH2
(C) Coenzyme A
(D) Oxygen

Coenzyme A

117

How many molecules of ATP are produced during glycolysis (the net gain of ATP molecules)?
(A) 2
(B) 4
(C) 12
(D) 24

2

118

Which of the following atoms is involved in glycolytic reactions to shield negative charges?
(A) Sodium
(B) Oxygen
(C) Magnesium
(D) Phosphorous

magnesium

119

Which of the following metabolic processes generates the most ATP?
(A) Glycolysis
(B) The citric acid cycle
(C) The electron transport chain
(D) Oxidative phosphorylation

oxydative phospholoration

120

Where in an aerobic cell is NADH oxidized?
(A) Cytosol
(B) Mitochondria
(C) Golgi apparatus
(D) ER

mitochondria

121

Which of the following events do not take place in the mitochondria?
(A) Glycolysis
(B) The citric acid cycle
(C) The electron transport chain
(D) Oxidative phosphorylation

glycolysis

122

Which of the following is not a possible anaerobic glycolytic product?
(A) Oxygen
(B) Lactic acid
(C) Ethanol
(D) Carbon dioxide

oxygen

123

Ethanol is a product of which of the following processes?
(A) The citric acid cycle
(B) Homolactic fermentation
(C) Oxidative phosphorylation
(D) Alcoholic fermentation

alcoholic fermetatio

124

Which of the following is not a structural component of the mitochondria?
(A) Matrix
(B) Cytosol
(C) Inner membrane
(D) Intermembrane spac

cytosol

125

What is the starting material of the citric acid cycle?
(A) Acetyl-CoA
(B) Glucose
(C) Pyruvate
(D) NADH

Acetly coA

126

Which stage in respiration produces the most coenzymes?
(A) Glycolysis
(B) The kreb cycle
(C) The electron transport chain
(D) Oxidative phosphorylation

kreb cycle

127

The outer mitochondrial membrane is highly _________ while the inner membrane is _________.
(A) Permeable, impermeable
(B) Impermeable, permeable
(C) Charged, uncharged
(D) Uncharged, charged

permiable, impermialbe

128

Which of the following is not generated during the citric acid cycle?
(A) GTP
(B) NADH
(C) Carbon dioxide
(D) Pyruvate

pyruvate

129

Which of the following molecules does not freely cross the inner mitochondrial membrane?
(A) Oxygen
(B) Carbon dioxide
(C) Pyruvate
(D) Water

pyruvate

130

How many molecules of NADH are generated during the citric acid cycle?
(A) 1
(B) 2
(C) 3
(D) 4

3

131

How many molecules of FADH2 are generated during the citric acid cycle?
(A) 1
(B) 2
(C) 3
(D) 4

1

132

In which protein complex in the inner mitochondrial membrane is oxygen reduced?
(A) I
(B) II
(C) III
(D) IV

IV

133

The coenzyme NAD/NADH is involved in which of the following types of reactions?
(A) Elimination
(B) Isomerization
(C) Oxidation/reduction
(D) Phosphorylation

oxidation/reduction

134

Which of the following is NOT a stage of cellular respiration?
a. fermentation c.glycolysis
b. electron transport d.Krebs cycle

fermentation

135

What are the reactants in the equation for cellular respiration?
a. oxygen and lactic acid c.glucose and oxygen
b. carbon dioxide and water
d. water and glucose

glucose and oxygen

136

The starting molecule for glycolysis is
a. ADP. c. citric acid.
b. pyruvic acid. d. glucose.

glucose

137

One cause of muscle soreness is
a. alcoholic fermentation. c. lactic acid fermentation.
b. glycolysis. d. the Krebs cycle.

lactic acud

138

Which process is used to produce beer and wine?
a. lactic acid fermentation
c.alcoholic fermentation
b. glycolysis d. the Krebs cycle

alcoholic fermentation

139

The conversion of pyruvic acid into lactic acid requires
a. alcohol. c. ATP.
b. oxygen. d. NADH.

NADH

140

Which organism is NOT likely to carry out cellular respiration?
a. tree c. anaerobic bacterium
b. mushroom d. tiger

anerobic bacterium

141

During one turn, the Krebs cycle produces
a. oxygen. c. electron carriers.
b. lactic acid. d. glucose.

electron carriers

142

Which of the following passes high-energy electrons into the electron transport chain?
a. NADH and FADH2 c. citric acid
b. ATP and ADP d. acetyl-CoA

NADH and FADH2

143

Cellular respiration uses one molecule of glucose to produce
a. 2 ATP molecules. c. 36 ATP molecules.
b. 34 ATP molecules. d. 38 ATP molecules.

36 ATP

144

Breathing heavily after running a race is your body’s way of
a. making more citric acid.
b. repaying an oxygen debt.
c. restarting glycolysis.
d. recharging the electron transport chain.

repaying an oxygen debt

145

All of the following are sources of energy during exercise EXCEPT
a. stored ATP. c. lactic acid fermentation.
b. alcoholic fermentation. d. cellular respiration.

alcoholic fermentation

146

Which process does NOT release energy from glucose?
a. glycolysis c. fermentation
b. photosynthesis d. cellular respiration

photosynthesis

147

Photosynthesis is to chloroplasts as cellular respiration is to
a. chloroplasts. c. mitochondria.
b. cytoplasm. d. nucleus.

mitochondria

148

Plants cannot release energy from glucose using
a. glycolysis. c. the Krebs cycle.
b. photosynthesis. d. cellular respiration.

photosynthesis

149

Which of the following is released during cellular respiration?
a. oxygen c. energy
b. air d. lactic acid

energy

150

Cellular respiration releases energy by breaking down
a. food molecules. c. carbon dioxide.
b. ATP. d. water.

food molecules

151

Which of these is a product of cellular respiration?
a. oxygen c. glucose
b. water d. all of the above

water

152

Which of these processes takes place in the cytoplasm of a cell?
a. glycolysis c. Krebs cycle
b. electron transport d. all of the above

glycolsis

153

Glycolysis provides a cell with a net gain of
a. 2 ATP molecules. c. 18 ATP molecules.
b. 4 ATP molecules. d. 36 ATP molecules.

2ATP molecule

154

Lactic acid fermentation occurs in
a. bread dough.
b. any environment containing oxygen.
c. muscle cells.
d. mitochondria.

muscle cells

155

The two main types of fermentation are called
a. alcoholic and aerobic. c. alcoholic and lactic acid.
b. aerobic and anaerobic. d. lactic acid and anaerobic.

alcholic and lactic

156

In the presence of oxygen, glycolysis is followed by
a. lactic acid fermentation. c. photosynthesis.
b. alcoholic fermentation. d. the Krebs cycle.

krebs cycle

157

Cellular respiration is called an aerobic process because it requires
a. light. c. oxygen.
b. exercise. d. glucose.

oxygen

158

The starting molecule for the Krebs cycle is
a. glucose. c. pyruvic acid.
b. NADH. d. coenzyme A.

pyruvic acid

159

In eukaryotes, electron transport occurs in the
a. mitochondria. c. cell membrane.
b. chloroplasts. d. cytoplasm.

mitochondria

160

The energy of the electrons passing along the electron transport chain is used to make
a. lactic acid. c. alcohol.
b. citric acid. d. ATP.

atp

161

When the body needs to exercise for longer than 90 seconds, it generates ATP by carrying out
a. lactic acid fermentation. c. cellular respiration.
b. alcoholic fermentation. d. glycolysis.

cellular respiration

162

Unlike photosynthesis, cellular respiration occurs in
a. animal cells only. c. all but plant cells.
b. plant cells only. d. all eukaryotic cells.

all eukaryotic cells

163

The products of photosynthesis are the
a. products of cellular respiration. c. products of glycolysis.
b. reactants of cellular respiration. d. reactants of fermentation.

reactants of cellular respiration

164

During aerobic cellular respiration, in which of the following location do ATP molecules form?
a. Cytosol only c. mitochondrial matrix, and outer mitochondrial membrane only
b. Mitochondrial matrix only d. Cytosol, mitochondrial matrix, and outer membrane only

mitochondrial matrix only

165

The aerobic and anaerobic pathways of cellular respiration require which product of glycolysis?
a. NADH and ATP c. Pyruvate and NADH
b. Pyruvate and ATP d. ATP,pyruvate, and NADH

pyruvate and NADH

166

Which process generates most of the ATP produced during cellular respiration?
a. Electron transport chain c. Glycolysis
b. Fermentation d. Krebs cycle

electron transport chain

167

While investigating yeast respiration, a researcher detects ethanol in the yeast culture. Which molecule does the yeast culture also contain?
a. Lactic acid and ATP c. Carbon dioxide and ATP
b. Oxygen and lactic acid d. Oxygen and carbon dioxide

carbon dioxide and ATP

168

Oxidation

the removal of electrons, or addition of oxygen

169

Reduction

the addition of electrons


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