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Radiographic Procedures I Chapter 10 1-70

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created 4 years ago by QWERTY
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1

For PA oblique projections of the chest, the side of interest is generally:

the side closer to the IR

the side farther from the IR

the side farther from the IR

2

Fluid that collects in the pleural cavity is termed:

pneumonia

pneumoconiosis

pleural effusion

chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

pleural effusion

3

Where does the esophagus lie in relation to the trachea?

to the right

to the left

in front of the trachea

behind the trachea

behind the trachea

4

For an AP portable chest on an older or hypersthenic male patient, which of the following should occur?

The image receptor generally should be placed lengthwise.

The CR should be centered 3 inches (8 cm) below the jugular notch.

The CR should be centered to the mammillary (nipple) line.

None of the above should occur.

The CR should be centered 3 inches (8 cm) below the jugular notch.

5
card image

Examine the chest image below. What anatomy is labeled as letter A?

apex of right lung

apex of left lung

costophrenic angle of right lung

costophrenic angle of left lung

apex of left lung

6

An ambulatory patient comes to radiology with a clinical history of possible pneumonia. The patient complains of pain in the center of her chest. What positioning routine should be performed on this patient?

PA and left lateral projections

PA and right and left lateral projections

PA and both decubitus projections

AP and right lateral projections

PA and left lateral projections

7

What is the name of the double-walled serous membrane sac that encloses the lung?

lingula

pleura

pleural cavity

costodiaphragmatic recess

pleura

8

Each lung is divided into specific segments called:

lobes

fissures

pleura

bronchopulmonary segments

lobes

9

The asthenic body type makes up approximately ____% of the population.

35

50

5

10

10

10

What is the primary disadvantage of performing an AP projection of the chest rather than a PA?

More radiation exposure to the lungs

Distortion of the ribs

AP projection requires more kV as compared with the PA projection

Increased magnification of the heart

Increased magnification of the heart

11

What is the purpose of the 72-inch SID used for chest radiography?

Allows more room for accurate patient positioning

Reduces patient dose

Minimizes magnification of the heart shadow

Minimizes demonstration of the scapula in the lungs

Minimizes magnification of the heart shadow

12

What is the central-ray angle for a PA chest radiograph?

5 degrees caudad

5 degrees cephalad

5 to 7 degrees caudad

perpendicular

perpendicular

13

Which of the following is best for demonstration of the apices of the lungs without bony superimposition?

Upright, PA projection of the chest

Upright, lateral projection of the chest

AP axial projection, lordotic position of the chest

Upright, PA oblique projection of the chest

AP axial projection, lordotic position of the chest

14

The radiographic projections performed using the decubitus positions are:
(1) oblique
(2) lateral
(3) AP/PA

1 and 2

1 and 3

2 and 3

1, 2, and 3

2 and 3

15

Why is the left lateral chest position the most commonly used for lateral radiographs of the chest?

less chance of body rotation

patient's heart is closer to the IR

there is greater magnification of the heart

easier to visualize interlobar fissures

patient's heart is closer to the IR

16

Which of the following exposure techniques is required to penetrate all of the thoracic anatomy?

low kVp

high kVp

short exposure time

long exposure time

high kVp

17

Which of the following objects does NOT have to be removed or moved before a chest radiography?

Necklace

Bra

T-shirt

Glasses

Glasses

18

A patient comes to radiology for a routine chest study. On the PA projection, the radiologist sees a possible calcification near a rib, but she cannot tell whether the calcification is in the lung or on the rib. What additional projections would assist with the diagnosis?

Apical lordotic

Right lateral

Inspiration/expiration PA

Both lateral decubitus

Inspiration/expiration PA

19

Why must the technologist slightly angle the CR caudad for most AP projections of the chest?

Elongates the carina

Prevents overlap of the chin on the upper airway

Separates the heart from the great vessels

Prevents clavicles from obscuring apices of the lungs

Prevents clavicles from obscuring apices of the lungs

20

The lungs are composed of a light, spongy, elastic substance called the:

pleura

bronchioles

parenchyma

serous membrane

parenchyma

21

Which of the following should be clearly demonstrated on an AP or PA oblique projection of the lungs?
(1) both lungs in their entirety
(2) R and L primary bronchi
(3) the trachea filled with air

1 and 2

1 and 3

2 and 3

1, 2, and 3

1 and 3

22

The thoracic viscera consists of the:
(1) lungs
(2) mediastinum
(3) diaphragm

1 and 2

1 and 3

2 and 3

1, 2, and 3

1 and 2

23

Of the following positioning actions, which one will remove the majority of the scapulae from the lung fields?

Roll shoulders forward.

Depress shoulders.

Elevate chin.

None of the above is correct.

Roll shoulders forward.

24

Of the following factors, which one is most crucial to demonstrate possible air and fluid levels in the chest?

72-inch (183 cm) SID

High-kV technique

Patient in erect or decubitus position

Using high mA and short exposure time

Patient in erect or decubitus position

25

How many degrees of body rotation are required for routine AP or PA oblique chest radiography?

30 degrees

45 degrees

60 degrees

30 to 40 degrees

45 degrees

26

Oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged by diffusion within the:

alveoli

alveolar duct

bronchioles

terminal bronchioles

alveoli

27

What is the respiration phase for AP or lateral projections performed in the decubitus position?

suspended respiration

full inspiration

full expiration

slow, shallow breathing

full inspiration

28

What is the central-ray angulation for an AP or PA oblique projection of the chest?

0 degrees

10 degrees caudad

15 to 20 degrees caudad for PA

15 to 20 degrees cephalad for AP

0 degrees

29

How many lobes are in the right lung?

3

4

2

1

3

30
card image

Examine the chest image below. What anatomy is labeled as letter B?

apex of right lung

apex of left lung

aortic arch

thymus gland

aortic arch

31

The area between the two lungs is termed the:

carina

thorax

mediastinum

pleural space

mediastinum

32

A chronic condition with persistent obstruction of the bronchial airflow is termed:

bronchitis

bronchotomy

bronchiectasis

chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

33

The costophrenic angle is a part of the:

heart

lungs

diaphragm

trachea

lungs

34

How many lobes are in the left lung?

3

4

2

1

2

35

When taking a PA projection of the chest, the correct SID is:

30 inches

40 inches

60 inches

72 inches

72 inches

36

What is the degree of body rotation for the PA oblique, LAO position of the chest during a cardiac series?

45 degrees

50 degrees

55 to 60 degrees

60 to 70 degrees

55 to 60 degrees

37

A patient enters the ED with a possible pneumothorax in the left lung. Because of trauma, the patient cannot stand or sit erect. Which of the following positions would best demonstrate this condition?

AP supine

Right lateral decubitus

Left posterior oblique (LPO) and right posterior oblique (RPO)

Left lateral decubitus

Right lateral decubitus

38

Which of the following will be observed on a supine AP chest radiograph?
(1) clavicles projected higher
(2) lung fields appear shorter
(3) all 12 ribs are seen

1 and 2

1 and 3

2 and 3

1, 2, and 3

1 and 2

39

Match the correct disease or condition with the descriptions of radiographic appearance. (Use each choice only once.)
Lung displaced from chest wall and no lung markings visible on radiographPatchy infiltrate with increased radiodensityIncreased lung dimensions (barrel-chested)Increased diffuse radiodensity in hilar regions and air-fluid levelsSevere cases appear as emphysemaSlight shadows in early stages, larger radiopaque masses in advanced stagesCollapse of all or part of lungInflammation of pleura (possible air/fluid levels)A contagious disease caused by airborne bacteriaCoughing up blood
Pneumothorax Pneumonia Emphysema Pulmonary edema COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) Malignant lung cancer Atelectasis Pleurisy Tuberculosis Hemoptysis
Lung displaced from chest wall and no lung markings visible on radiograph
Patchy infiltrate with increased radiodensity
Increased lung dimensions (barrel-chested)
Increased diffuse radiodensity in hilar regions and air-fluid levels
Severe cases appear as emphysema
Slight shadows in early stages, larger radiopaque masses in advanced stages
Collapse of all or part of lung
Inflammation of pleura (possible air/fluid levels)
A contagious disease caused by airborne bacteria
Coughing up blood

no data

40

What are the proper patient instructions for the PA projection of the chest?

Stop breathing after second deep inspiration

Stop breathing after deep inspiration

Stop breathing after expiration

Slow, even breathing

Stop breathing after second deep inspiration

41

The right lung is about how much shorter than the left?

1/2 inch

1 inch

1/2 inches

2 inches

1 inch

42

If the lateral decubitus position is used to demonstrate fluid in the pleural cavity, which side must the patient lie on?

affected side

unaffected side

either side

affected side

43

What is the name of the tongue-shaped process on the anterior-medial border of the left lung?

apex

base

hilum

lingula

lingula

44

The presence of gas or air in the pleural cavity is termed:

pneumonias

pneumothorax

pneumomediastinum

pneumopericardium

pneumothorax

45

What is the most optimal position of the patient for examinations of the heart and lungs?

prone

supine

upright

decubitus

upright

46

What is the name of the structure that serves as a common passageway for both food and air?

Epiglottis

Larynx

Pharynx

Esophagus

Pharynx

47

A PA chest radiograph reveals that only seven ribs are seen above the diaphragm on a healthy adult. Which of the following suggestions would improve the inspiration of lungs?

Use higher kV to penetrate the diaphragm.

Perform chest position supine.

Take exposure on the second inspiration rather than on first.

Use a shorter exposure time.

Take exposure on the second inspiration rather than on first.

48

Which of the following structures is considered to be most posterior?

Larynx

Esophagus

Trachea

Hyoid bone

Esophagus

49

The upper margin of the lungs is at the level of the:

jugular notch.

vertebra prominens.

laryngeal prominence.

sternal angle.

vertebra prominens.

50

If the patient cannot be placed in the lordotic position for radiography of the pulmonary apices, what is the central-ray angle that can be used to project the clavicles above the apices?

5 to 10 degrees caudad

5 to 10 degrees cephalad

15 to 20 degrees caudad

15 to 20 degrees cephalad

15 to 20 degrees cephalad

51

The respiratory system proper consists of the:
(1) larynx
(2) trachea and bronchi
(3) both lungs

1 and 2

1 and 3

2 and 3

1, 2, and 3

1, 2, and 3

52

Where should the top of the IR be positioned for a supine AP chest radiograph?

at the level of the shoulders

at the level of the clavicles

1 inch above the relaxed shoulders

1/2 to 2 inches above the relaxed shoulders

1 1/2 to 2 inches above the relaxed shoulders

53

What is the respiration phase for the AP axial projection of the pulmonary apices?

inspiration

expiration

suspended expiration

slow, shallow breathing

inspiration

54

Air or gas that escapes into the pleural cavity results in a condition known as:

air bronchogram.

pneumothorax.

hemidiaphragm.

hemothorax.

pneumothorax

55

The thymus gland is at its maximum size at:

age 40.

age 21.

puberty.

birth.

puberty

56

Which of the following would not be included in the mediastinum?
(1) thymus
(2) larynx
(3) diaphragm
1 and 2
1 and 3
2 and 3
1, 2, and 3

2 and 3

57

Which of the following technical factors is ideal for adult chest radiography?

100 kV, 200 mA, 1/20 sec, 60-inch (153 cm) source image receptor distance (SID)

120 kV, 800 mA, 1/40 sec, 72-inch (183 cm) SID

125 kV, 400 mA, 1/40 sec, 40-inch (102 cm) SID

120 kV, 600 mA, 1/60 sec, 60-inch (153 cm) SID

120 kV, 800 mA, 1/40 sec, 72-inch (183 cm) SID

58

What is the patient position for a lateral projection done in the dorsal decubitus position?

seated

standing

prone

supine

supine

59

Which of the following best describes the position of the thymus gland?

in the mediastinum

in the anterior neck

behind the heart

behind the manubrium

behind the manubrium

60

Which of the following are advantages of using an SID of 72 inches for chest radiography?
(1) decreased magnification of the heart
(2) sharper outlines of the delicate lung structures
(3) greater penetration of the mediastinum

1 and 2

1 and 3

2 and 3

1, 2, and 3

1 and 2

61

How many ribs should be visible above the diaphragm on a PA chest radiograph?

9

10

11

12

10

62

What structure separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity?

The aortic arch

The parietal membrane

The visceral membrane

The diaphragm

The diaphragm

63

What is the purpose of rotating the patient’s shoulders anteriorly for the PA projection of the chest?

This motion rotates the scapulae out of the lungs

This motion reduces magnification of the heart shadow

This motion makes the position more comfortable for the patient

This motion places the coronal plane parallel to the upright grid cabinet

This motion rotates the scapulae out of the lungs

64

The aspiration of a foreign particle in the lung would be termed:

pneumonia

bronchitis

viral pneumonia

aspiration pneumonia

aspiration pneumonia

65

What is the optimal respiration phase for a PA or lateral chest radiograph?

full inspiration—first breath

full expiration—first breath

full inspiration—second breath

full expiration—second breath

full inspiration—second breath

66

Which of the following factors must be applied to minimize distortion of the heart?

72-inch (183 cm) SID

High-kV technique

Performing study erect

Using high mA and short exposure time

72-inch (183 cm) SID

67

The central ray (CR) for an anteroposterior (AP) supine, adult chest projection, should be centered:

to level of T4.

3 to 4 inches (8 to 10 cm) below the jugular notch.

at the vertebra prominens.

at the xiphoid process.

3 to 4 inches (8 to 10 cm) below the jugular notch

68

The smallest subdivision of the bronchial tree is the:

terminal bronchial

tertiary bronchial

secondary bronchial

primary bronchial

terminal bronchial

69
card image

The area identified in the figure above is the:

hilum

lingula

mediastinum

pulmonary veins

hilum

70

Which of following statements is NOT true?

The right lung contains three lobes.

The left bronchus is more horizontal than the right bronchus.

The right bronchus is shorter than the left bronchus.

The angle of divergence of the left bronchus is greater than that of the right bronchus.

The left bronchus is more horizontal than the right bronchus.


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