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Chapter 21 Blood Vessels and Circulation

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created 4 years ago by xley04x
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1

Which layer of the blood vessel wall contains smooth muscle?
tunica intima
tunica adventitia
tunica media
tunica externa

The tunica media is the middle layer of the blood vessel wall and contains smooth muscle in a framework of loose connective tissue.

2

Which of the following are characterized by a thick tunica media, a rippled endothelium, and an internal elastic membrane?
sinusoids
arteries
capillaries
veins

arteries

3

Which of the following are characterized by a thin tunica media and valves to prevent the backflow of blood?
sinusoids
arteries
capillaries
veins

veins

4

Which type of capillary is characterized by pores that penetrate the endothelial lining and is found in intestinal tract and kidneys?
continuous
anastomosis
sinusoidal
fenestrated

Fenestrated capillaries have pores, or "windows," that permit the rapid exchange of water and solutes. These are commonly found in the kidney and intestinal tract.

5

To what pressure does the term blood pressure refer?
capillary pressure
venous pressure
arterial pressure
atmospheric pressure

arterial pressure

6

Which of the following does NOT contribute to total peripheral resistance?
blood pressure
blood viscosity
vessel length and diameter
turbulence

Total peripheral resistance reflects a combination of vessel length and diameter, blood viscosity, and turbulence. Blood pressure does not affect resistance.

7

In taking a patient's blood pressure, you find that it is 120/80. The higher number (120) is the __________.
diastolic pressure
systolic pressure
pulse pressure
capillary pressure

systolic pressure

8

A local vasodilator would act to __________.
reduce blood flow through a tissue
accelerate blood flow through a tissue
constrict precapillary sphincters
raise blood pressure in a tissue

accelerate blood flow through a tissue

9

Which of the following is NOT a location of the baroreceptors that are involved in cardiovascular regulation?
lungs
wall of the right atrium
carotid sinuses
aortic sinuses

lungs

10

Which organ shows NO change in its overall blood flow in rest, light exercise, and strenuous exercise?
brain
skin
skeletal muscle
heart

The brain has a constant total blood flow to maintain its high energy needs.

11

When blood pressure and volume fall suddenly, such as would occur after a hemorrhage, which of the following would NOT be a short-term response to immediately compensate and raise blood pressure?
release of ADH to retain water in the kidney
increase in cardiac output
release of erythropoietin to stimulate blood
cell development
release of epinephrine and norepinephrine to
promote vasoconstriction

Correct Answer:
release of erythropoietin to stimulate blood cell development
Explanation:
The release of EPO to stimulate blood cell development would be a long-term response and would take days to give any effect. Vasoconstriction, water retention, and increasing cardiac output would immediately increase blood volume and pressure.

12

Which circuit serves to bring blood to the lungs to be oxygenated before returning it to the heart?
pulmonary circuit
renal circuit
hepatic portal circuit
systemic circuit

pulmonary circuit

13

Which vessels carry deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle to the lungs?
bronchial arteries
pulmonary arteries
pulmonary veins
coronary arteries

pulmonary arteries

14

Which of the following does NOT supply oxygenated blood to the brain?
cerebral arterial circle
bachial artery
vertebral artery
internal carotid artery

brachial artery

15

Which of the following arteries supplies oxygenated blood to the stomach?
suprarenal artery
The left gastric artery supplies arterial
blood to the stomach.
superior mesenteric artery
inferior mesenteric artery

The left gastric artery supplies arterial blood to the stomach.

16

Which vessel brings nutrient-rich blood from the digestive tract to the liver?
hepatic portal vein
gonadal vein
phrenic vein
hepatic vein

hepatic portal vein

17

Which veins bring blood from the lower limbs to the inferior vena cava?
brachiocephalic veins
common iliac veins
lumbar veins
jugular veins

common iliac veins

18

Blood flow for the fetus to and from the placenta is provided by ___________ arteries and vein.
umbilical
lumbar
renal
hepatic

umbilical

19

What structure connects the pulmonary and aortic trunks in the fetus and permits blood to flow between these structures?
umbilical artery
fossa ovalis
ductus arteriosus
foramen ovale

Correct Answer:
ductus arteriosus
Explanation:
The ductus arteriosus is a structure that connects the pulmonary and aortic trunks in the fetus and permits blood to flow between the two structures, bypassing the pulmonary circuit.

20

Which of the following is NOT a change that occurs in the cardiovascular system with age?
decreased hematocrit
increase in elasticity of the heart
progressive atherosclerosis
reduction of cardiac output

increase in elasticity of the heart

21
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Label the following components in the diagram of the blood vessel.
1.1 elastic fiber
1.2 endothelium
1.3 tunica intima
1.4 tunica externa
1.5 tunica media
1.6 smooth muscle

A. Elastic Fiber
B. Smooth Muscle
C. Tunica Externa
D. Tunica Media
E. Endothelium
F. Tunica Intima

22
card image

Correctly match the terms with the appropriate arteries in the diagram.
2.1 brachiocephalic trunk
2.2 right common carotid
2.3 common iliac
2.4 renal
2.5 anterior tibial
2.6 radial

A. Common Iliac
B. Brachiocephalic Trunk
C. Right Common Carotid
D. Anterior Tibial
E. Radial
F. Renal

23
card image

Correctly match the terms with the appropriate veins of the hepatic portal system or the veins collecting the blood leaving the liver.
3.1 inferior vena cava
3.2 hepatic portal
3.3 hepatic veins
3.4 inferior mesenteric
3.5 splenic
3.6 superior mesenteric

A. Splenic
B. Inferior Vena Cava
C. Superior Mesenteric
D. Inferior Mesenteric
E. Hepatic Portal
F. Hepatic Veins

24

Arrange the following vessels in the order blood would pass going from the left ventricle to the right atrium by matching (1) through (6):
Capillary
Elastic artery
Arteriole
Muscular artery
Venule
Vein

Elastic Artery, Muscular Artery, Arteriole, Capillary, Venule, Vein

25

Arrange the following in order from superficial to deep:
Collagen and elastic fibers of the tunica externa
External elastic membrane of tunica media
Internal elastic membrane of tunica intima
Smooth muscle and elastic fibers of tunica media
Endothelium

A. Collagen and elastic fibers of the tunica externa
B. External elastic membrane of tunica media
D. Smooth muscle and elastic fibers of tunica media
C. Internal elastic membrane of tunica intima
E. Endothelium

26

Pressure difference between the base of the ascending aorta and the entrance to the right atrium

Circulatory pressure

27

Hydrostatic pressure in the arterial system that pushes blood through the capillary beds.

Blood pressure

28

Blood pressure within the capillary beds

Capillary hydrostatic pressure

29

Eddies and swirls in the flow created by high flow rates, irregular surfaces and sudden diameter changes

Turbulence

30

Resistance to flow caused by interactions among molecule and suspended particles in a fluid

Viscosity

31

Forces opposing movement in the arterial system

Peripheral resistance

32

Tracing the flow of blood from the left ulnar side of the forearm back to the heart, place the following vessels in order from smallest (1) to largest (6), or farthest from the heart (1) to closest to the heart (6):
A Left axillary vein
B Left brachiocephalic
C Left ulnar vein
D Left subclavian
E Superior vena cava
F Left brachial vein

C. Left ulnar vein
F. Left brachial vein
A. Left axillary vein
D. Left subclavian
B. Left brachiocephalic
E. Superior vena cava

33

Trace the flow of blood leaving the fetal heart (1), traveling to the placenta, and returning to the heart (6):
A Blood leaves heart via aortic semilunar valve or ductus arteriosus.
B Blood leaves the developing liver, passes through the inferior vena cava to the right atrium.
C Blood passes through the ductus venosus.
D Oxygenated blood enters the umbilical vein.
E Blood travels from the aorta to umbilical arteries.
F Blood is oxygenated at the placenta.

A. Blood leaves heart via aortic semilunar valve or ductus arteriosus.
E. Blood travels from the aorta to umbilical arteries.
F. Blood is oxygenated at the placenta.
D. Oxygenated blood enters the umbilical vein.
C. Blood passes through the ductus venosus.
B. Blood leaves the developing liver, passes through the inferior vena cava to the right atrium.

34

Arteries __________.

allow blood to remain where it is
carry blood away from the heart
carry blood toward the heart
None of the listed responses is correct.

carry blood away from the heart

35

The innermost layer of an artery or vein is called the __________.

tunica intima
tunica interna
tunica media
tunica intima or tunica interna

tunica intima or tunica interna

36

Fenestrated capillaries are found __________.

in the choroid plexus and kidneys
throughout body tissues
in the liver and muscular tissues
All of the listed responses are correct.
None of the listed responses is correct.

in the choroid plexus and kidneys

37

Capillaries __________.

anastomose with veins
function as individual units
function as parts of a capillary plexus
are called preferred channels

function as parts of a capillary plexus

38

The pattern of blood flow through a capillary bed is influenced by __________.

parasympathetic innervation
sympathetic innervation
both sympathetic innervation and
parasympathetic innervation
None of the listed responses is correct.

sympathetic innervation (vagus nerve for para??**)

39

Chemical and gaseous exchange takes place __________.

only between veins and capillaries
between arteries, veins, and capillaries
between arteries and veins
only across capillary walls

only across capillary walls

40

Which of the following statements concerning veins and arteries is FALSE?

The endothelial lining of an artery cannot contract.
Arteries, when stretched, are more resilient than veins.
In general, the walls of arteries are thinner than the walls of veins.
When not opposed by blood pressure, arterial walls contract.

In general, the walls of arteries are thinner than the walls of veins.

41

Capillaries that have small pores in their endothelium are called __________.

arteriovenous anastomoses
sinusoids
fenestrated capillaries
continuous capillaries

fenestrated capillaries

42

Each of the following contributes to the venous reserve EXCEPT __________.

skin
lungs
small intestine
liver

small intestine

43

A new recruit in the armed forces stands at attention on a hot afternoon. He decides to lock his knees, thinking it will make the standing easier. After a short while, he faints. What has occurred?

As he was using his respiratory pump to bring blood back to the heart, he brought too much blood up from the legs, which caused his legs to grow weak and give way underneath him.
He did not use muscular compression to help return blood to the heart; thus, his brain did not receive enough oxygenated blood, causing him to pass out.
His brain was receiving an excess of oxygenated blood and had to eliminate the standing posture to allow it to restabilize and receive less blood.
None of the listed responses is correct.

He did not use muscular compression to help return blood to the heart; thus, his brain did not receive enough oxygenated blood, causing him to pass out.

44

Arteries demonstrate a pattern of _____________, whereas veins demonstrate ________________.

capacity; elasticity
divergence; convergence
convergence; divergence
low pressures and high resistance; high pressures and low resistance

divergence; convergence

45

The cycling of water from the capillaries, through the peripheral tissues, through the lymphatic system, and then back to the bloodstream __________.

assists in the transport of insoluble lipids and tissue proteins
accelerates the distribution of nutrients, hormones, and dissolved gases throughout the tissues
ensures that the plasma and the interstitial fluid are in constant communication
All of the listed responses are correct.

All of the listed responses are correct.

46

Which of the following does NOT affect the resistance found in arteries?

vessel diameter
viscosity of blood
presence of valves
vessel length

presence of valves

47

The pulse pressure of an artery is __________.

the difference between systolic and diastolic pressures
the sum of systolic and diastolic pressures
the average of systolic and diastolic pressures
the square root of the sum of the systolic and diastolic pressures

the difference between systolic and diastolic pressures

48

Mean arterial pressure __________ as arterial branches become smaller.

decreases
stabilizes
increases
None of the listed responses is correct.

decreases

49

The process by which materials leave the capillary at the arterial end is called ______________, and the entry of materials into the capillary at the venous end is called ________________.

active transport; passive transport
diffusion; osmosis
filtration; reabsorption
None of the listed responses is correct.

filtration; reabsorption

50

The blood colloid osmotic pressure drives the process of __________.

active transport
reabsorption
diffusion
filtration

reabsorption

51

Tissue blood flow is regulated by __________.

neural mechanisms
local factors
hormone levels
All of the listed responses are correct.

All of the listed responses are correct.

52

Baroreceptors are located in the __________.

aortic sinus
carotid sinus
right atrium
All of the listed responses are correct.

All of the listed responses are correct.

53

Which of the following factors CANNOT cause local vasodilation?

increased levels of oxygen at a tissue
release of nitric oxide
increased levels of carbon dioxide at a tissue
increased concentrations of hydrogen ions
generation of acids by tissue cells

increased levels of oxygen at a tissue

54

Which of the following is NOT an effect of angiotensin II?

stimulation of the secretion of ADH
stimulation of the production of aldosterone
stimulation of the thirst center
stimulation of the production of erythrocytes

stimulation of the production of erythrocytes

55

Which of the following is NOT a long-term process used to restore blood volume?

decline in capillary blood pressure
increased thirst and water reabsorption across the digestive tract
secretion of aldosterone and ADH to promote fluid retention
increased cardiac output and neural vasoconstriction as a result of carotid and aortic reflexes

increased cardiac output and neural vasoconstriction as a result of carotid and aortic reflexes

56

Which of the following statements concerning the cardiovascular response to hemorrhaging is INCORRECT?

Baroreceptor reflexes trigger an increase in cardiac output and peripheral vasoconstriction.
Venoconstriction helps to increase venous return.
ADH and aldosterone promote fluid retention at the kidneys.
The adrenal glands secrete epinephrine and norepinephrine.
Sympathetic stimulation of blood vessels reduces vasomotor tone

Sympathetic stimulation of blood vessels reduces vasomotor tone.

57

Pulmonary veins carry blood ____________ the heart, and this blood is _________________.

toward; oxygenated
away from; oxygenated
away from; deoxygenated
toward; deoxygenated

toward; oxygenated

58

The three large arteries originating from the aortic arch are the __________.

brachiocephalic, right common carotid, and right subclavian arteries
coronary, common carotid, and brachiocephalic arteries
brachiocephalic, left common carotid, and left subclavian arteries
internal mammary, vertebral, and left subclavian arteries

brachiocephalic, left common carotid, and left subclavian arteries

59

The internal carotid arteries supply blood to the __________.

brain
digestive tract
face
chest

brain

60

The internal carotid and basilar arteries are interconnected by the __________.

hypophyseal portal vein
circle of Willis
cerebral arterial circle
circle of Willis and the cerebral arterial circle
None of the listed responses is correct.

circle of Willis and the cerebral arterial circle

61

The superior mesenteric artery supplies all of the following organs EXCEPT the __________.

pancreas
large intestine
stomach
small intestine

stomach

62

Which of the following are branches of the celiac artery?

common hepatic
gonadal
phrenics
All of the listed responses are correct.
None of the listed responses is correct.

common hepatic

63

The superior sagittal sinus is located in the __________ and drains blood from the __________.

cerebellum; brain stem
occipital lobe; frontal lobes
falx cerebri; brain
cerebellum and occipital lobe; brain stem and brain

falx cerebri; brain

64

Blood that drains from the brain into the transverse sinus flows into the __________.

internal jugulars
external jugulars
external carotids
internal carotids

internal jugulars

65

The popliteal vein is a ___________ vein that passes blood into the ______________ vein.

deep; posterior tibial
superficial; small saphenous
superficial; posterior tibial
deep; femoral

deep; femoral

66

The brachiocephalic vein results from the fusion of the __________.

vertebrals
subclavians
jugulars
All of the listed responses are correct.

All of the listed responses are correct.

67

Each of the following arteries contributes to the cerebral arterial circle EXCEPT __________.

anterior communicating artery
posterior communicating artery
superior cerebellar artery
anterior cerebral artery

superior cerebellar artery

68

Examples of special circulation can be found in each of the following organs EXCEPT the _________.

brain
lungs
skin
heart

skin

69

In which of the following locations is the pulse NOT commonly taken?

dorsalis pedis artery
radial artery
external jugular vein
external carotid artery

external jugular vein

70

Each of the following vessels is a tributary of the hepatic portal vein EXCEPT __________.

splenic vein
inferior mesenteric vein
left colic vein
inferior vena cava

inferior vena cava

71

In fetal development, the connection between the right atrium and left atrium, which closes by birth, is called the __________.

foramen ovale
ductus venosus
ductus arteriosus
None of the listed responses is correct.

foramen ovale

72

A baby is born with blue coloration after an apparently normal labor. What could be involved in this scenario?

ductus arteriosus; right-to-left shunt
interventricular septum
foramen ovale
umbilical arteries

ductus arteriosus; right-to-left shunt

73
card image

Which of the following structures closes or constricts at birth?
foramen ovale and inferior vena cava
umbilical arteries and pulmonary trunk
foramen ovale and ductus arteriosus
All of the listed responses are correct.

foramen ovale and ductus arteriosus

74

True/False. As we age, our blood vessels become less elastic.

True

75

True/False. Arterioles consist of a tunica media, tunica intima, and very thin tunica externa.

False. The tunica externa is absent in arterioles. The tunica media and tunica intima remain, however.

76

True/False. The circle of Willis is the network of vessels that supplies oxygenated blood to the heart.

False. The circle of Willis supplies oxygenated blood to the brain, not the heart.

77

True/False. The umbilical vein carries oxygenated blood to the fetal heart.

True

78

True/False. When you take your pulse at the wrist, you are palpating the radial vein.

False. The radial artery is used to measure pulse, not the radial vein.

79

As you proceed from the aorta toward the capillaries, blood pressure falls rapidly as the result of an increase in _______. (Use three words.)

cross-sectional area

80

The driving force for filtration at the capillaries is _______. (Use two words.)

hydrostatic pressure

81

Baroreceptor reflexes respond to changes in blood pressure and ______ reflexes monitor changes in the chemical composition of arterial blood.

chemoreceptor

82

If a capillary is damaged, and dissolved proteins and formed elements leak into the interstitial fluid, the ICOP would be raised. This elevation of the ICOP would produce localized ____.

edema

swelling

83

The pituitary hormone released in response to a decrease in blood volume and an increase in osmotic pressure is ________ .

ADH

antidiuretic hormone

84

Which of the following vascular layers contains the thick wrapping of smooth muscle that gives arteries their rounded appearance?
tunica adventitia
tunica externa
tunica media
tunica interna

tunica media

85

An endothelium that appears pleated or rippled is characteristic of __________.
veins
arteries
capillaries
None of the listed responses is correct.

arteries

86

The unidirectional flow of blood in venules and medium-sized veins is maintained by __________.
the presence of valves
arterial pressure
pressure from the left ventricle
the muscular walls of the veins

the presence of valves

87

Of the following blood vessels, the greatest resistance to blood flow occurs in the __________.
venules
arterioles
capillaries
veins

arterioles

88

If the systolic pressure is 120 mm Hg and the diastolic pressure is 90 mm Hg, what is the mean arterial pressure (MAP)?
30 mm Hg
80 mm Hg
100 mm Hg
210 mm Hg

100 mm Hg

89

What is the most important determinant of vascular resistance?
differences in the length of the blood vessels
a combination of neural and hormonal mechanisms
the diameter of the arterioles
friction between the blood and the vessel walls

friction between the blood and the vessel walls

90

What are the two major factors affecting blood flow rates?
pressure and resistance
neural and hormonal control mechanisms
turbulence and viscosity
diameter and length of blood vessels

pressure and resistance

91

What does the formula F = P/R mean? (Note: F = flow; P = pressure; R = resistance)
Increasing P and increasing R will decrease F.
Decreasing P and increasing R will increase F.
Decreasing P and decreasing R will increase F.
Increasing P and decreasing R will increase F.

Increasing P and decreasing R will increase F.

92

Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) reduces blood volume and pressure by __________.
increasing water loss by the kidneys
stimulating peripheral vasodilation
blocking release of ADH
All of the listed responses are correct.

All of the listed responses are correct.

93

The central regulation of cardiac output primarily involves the activities of the __________.
somatic nervous system
autonomic nervous system
central nervous system
All of the listed responses are correct.

autonomic nervous system

94

An increase in cardiac output normally occurs during __________.
widespread sympathetic stimulation
widespread parasympathetic stimulation
stimulation of the vasomotor center
the process of vasomotion

widespread sympathetic stimulation

95

The three primary interrelated changes that occur as exercise begins are __________.
increasing vasodilation, decreasing venous return, and increasing cardiac output
decreasing vasodilation, decreasing venous return, and decreasing cardiac output
increasing vasodilation, increasing venous return, and increasing cardiac output
decreasing vasodilation, increasing venous return, and increasing cardiac output

increasing vasodilation, increasing venous return, and increasing cardiac output

96

What is the only area of the body where the blood supply is UNAFFECTED while exercising at maximum levels?
brain
hepatic portal circulation
peripheral circulation
pulmonary circulation

brain

97

What type of capillaries have large gaps, allow a free exchange of water and solutes, and are found in the liver, bone marrow, and spleen?
intercalated
sinusoidal
continuous
fenestrated

sinusoidal

98

As the external iliac artery leaves the body trunk and enters the lower limb, it becomes the __________.
lower abdominal aorta
femoral artery
anterior fibular artery
lower tibial artery

femoral artery

99

The link between adjacent arteries or veins that reduces the impact of a temporary or permanent occlusion of a single blood vessel is __________.
a cardiovascular bridge
an anastomosis
a venule
an arteriole

an anastomosis

100

Consider the following pathway: Blood full of nutrients from the digestive system moves through the hepatic portal system to the liver. The hepatic veins then carry blood from the liver to which large vein that carries the blood to the heart?
superior mesenteric vein
inferior vena cava
hepatic portal vein
superior vena cava

inferior vena cava

101

Blood from the lower limbs, the pelvis, and the lower abdomen is delivered to the __________.
common saphenous veins
external iliac veins
hepatic veins
hepatic portal system

external iliac veins

102

Which of the following statements about the liver is FALSE?
The presence of continuous capillaries in the liver allows new plasma proteins made in the hepatocytes to enter the capillaries.
The liver is supplied with both hepatic arteries and veins.
The inferior mesenteric, splenic, and superior mesenteric veins deliver venous blood to the liver.
All of the listed responses are true; none is false.

The presence of continuous capillaries in the liver allows new plasma proteins made in the hepatocytes to enter the capillaries.

103

Which type of congenital heart defect most commonly affects children born with Down syndrome (trisomy 21)?
tetralogy of Fallot
transposition of great vessels
atrioventricular septal defect
ventricular septal defect

atrioventricular septal defect

104

In early fetal life, the foramen ovale allows blood to flow freely from the __________.
right ventricle to the left ventricle
left atrium to the right ventricle
right atrium to the left ventricle
right atrium to the left atrium

right atrium to the left atrium

105

In the adult, the ductus arteriosus persists as a fibrous cord called the __________.
umbilicus
ligamentum arteriosum
ductus venosus
fossa ovalis

ligamentum arteriosum

106

A few seconds after birth, rising O2 levels stimulate the constriction of the ductus arteriosus, isolating the __________.
pulmonary and aortic trunks
ductus venosus and ligamentum arteriosum
ligamentum arteriosum and fossa ovalis
superior and inferior vena cava

pulmonary and aortic trunks

107

What is the primary effect of a decrease in the hematocrit of elderly individuals?
damage to ventricular cardiac muscle fibers
reduction in the maximum cardiac output
lowering of the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood
thrombus formation in the blood vessels

lowering of the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood

108

Which of the following is NOT a short-term response to hemorrhaging?
ADH and angiotensin II enhance vasoconstriction.
Venoconstriction mobilizes venous return.
ADH and aldosterone promote fluid retention.
Carotid and aortic reflexes increase cardiac output.

ADH and aldosterone promote fluid retention.

109

At any given moment, the systematic circulation contains about __________percent of the total blood volume.
10
51
71
84

84

110

What is the goal of cardiovascular regulation?
to increase pressure and reduce resistance
to maintain adequate blood flow through peripheral tissues and organs
to equalize the stroke volume with the cardiac output
to equalize the blood flow with the pressure differences

to maintain adequate blood flow through peripheral tissues and organs

111

Along the length of a typical capillary, blood pressure gradually falls from about __________.
120 to 80 mm Hg
75 to 50 mm Hg
35 to 18 mm Hg
15 to 5 mm Hg

35 to 18 mm Hg

112

Blood supply to the pancreas is essential because the organ is the production site for important hormones used in glucose metabolism. Which of the following arteries does NOT supply the pancreas?
splenic artery
superior mesenteric artery
left gastric artery
common hepatic artery

left gastric artery

113

The average pressure in the aorta is approximately __________.
80 mm Hg
100 mm Hg
120 mm Hg
140 mm Hg

100 mm Hg

114

The average pressure in veins is approximately __________.
2 mm Hg
10 mm Hg
16 mm Hg
80 mm Hg

16 mm Hg

115

When blood flows through capillary beds, its flow is regulated. What structures allow blood to flow into the capillary beds?
precapillary sphincters
sinusoids
fenestrations
one-way valves

precapillary sphincters

116

The formula for resistance, R = Ln/r4, where L is the length of the vessel, n is the viscosity of the blood, and r is the radius of the vessel, would confirm which of the following relationships?
Decreasing radius and increasing friction will decrease flow.
Decreasing radius and decreasing friction will decrease flow.
Increasing radius and decreasing friction will increase flow.
Increasing radius and increasing friction will increase flow.

Increasing radius and decreasing friction will increase flow.

117

Considering cardiac output (CO), mean arterial pressure (AP), and total peripheral resistance (PR), the relationship among flow, pressure, and resistance could be expressed as __________.
CO/AP = 1/PR
AP = CO × PR
CO = AP/PR
All of the listed responses are correct.

All of the listed responses are correct.

118

To increase blood flow to an adjacent capillary, the local controls that operate are __________.
decreasing O2, increasing CO2, and decreasing pH
increasing O2, decreasing CO2, and decreasing pH
decreasing O2, decreasing CO2, and decreasing pH
increasing O2, increasing CO2, and increasing pH

decreasing O2, increasing CO2, and decreasing pH

119

The adrenergic fibers innervating arterioles are __________ fibers that release __________ and cause __________.
sympathetic; norepinephrine; vasoconstriction
parasympathetic; epinephrine; vasoconstriction
sympathetic; epinephrine; vasodilation
parasympathetic; norepinephrine; vasodilation

sympathetic; norepinephrine; vasoconstriction

120

A patient visits a doctor for a routine checkup. A nurse uses a sphygmomanometer to measure the patient's pulse at the brachial artery. The nurse raises the pressure to a point where a rhythmic pulsing sound is no longer audible. When the nurse releases pressure, the pulsing sound returns. What pressure is producing this sound?
capillary hydrostatic pressure
venous pressure
systolic pressure
diastolic pressure

systolic pressure

121

The artery that serves the hip joint, femoral head and deep thigh muscles is the __________.
internal iliac artery
deep femoral artery
common iliac artery
celiac artery

deep femoral artery

122

Which of the following is NOT a tributary of the hepatic portal vein?
inferior vena cava
splenic vein
inferior mesenteric vein
superior mesenteric vein

inferior vena cava

123

When the net hydrostatic pressure (NHP) is less than that of the net colloid osmotic pressure (NCOP), which of the following events occurs?
equilibrium
filtration
reabsorption
None of the listed responses is correct.

reabsorption

124

Which vein(s) drain(s) the head, neck, and upper extremities?
brachiocephalic veins
azygos vein
subclavian veins
jugular veins

brachiocephalic veins

125

Which vein(s) drain venous blood from the legs and the pelvis?
common iliac veins
femoral veins
great saphenous vein
posterior tibial veins

common iliac veins

126

Which vein(s) drain(s) the knee region of the body?
femoral vein
external iliac veins
great saphenous vein
popliteal vein

popliteal vein

127

The large artery that serves the brain is the __________.
cephalic artery
internal carotid artery
external carotid artery
subclavian artery

internal carotid artery

128

The "link" between the subclavian and brachial artery is the __________.
vertebral artery
axillary artery
brachiocephalic artery
cephalic artery

axillary artery

129

The three arterial branches of the celiac trunk are the __________.
phrenic, intercostal, and adrenolumbar arteries
left gastric, splenic, and hepatic arteries
splenic, pancreatic, and mesenteric arteries
brachial, ulnar, and radial arteries

left gastric, splenic, and hepatic arteries

130

The artery that supplies most of the small intestine and the first half of the large intestine is the __________.
suprarenal artery
superior mesenteric artery
hepatic artery
inferior mesenteric artery

superior mesenteric artery

131

Which artery(ies) supply(ies) the pelvic organs?
external iliac artery
internal iliac artery
femoral artery
common iliac arteries

internal iliac artery

132

The subdivision(s) of the popliteal artery is (are) the __________.
anterior and posterior tibial arteries
peroneal artery
great saphenous artery
femoral and deep femoral arteries

anterior and posterior tibial arteries


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