Are hypoxemic and hypercapnic states exclusive or can they occur at the same time?
What is the alveolar capillary membrane?
Is acute respiratory failure a disease or condition?
Why is there a gap between the lowest value of the normal range of PaO2 and what classifies oxygenation failure?
What are the three types of causes of hypoxemic respiratory failure?
How would you treat the V/Q mismatch of asthma
How would you respond to a V/Q mismatch caused by a PE?
What is a shunt?
What is an anatomical shunt?
What is a intrapulmonary shunt?
Do you give O2 to a patient with an intrapulmonary shunt?
Define diffusion limitation.
Name four examples of diffusion limitation.
How can you that hypoxemic is a result of diffusion limitation?
What are the four types of hypercapnic respiratory failure?
Define hypercapnic respiratory failure.
Name four examples of airways and alveoli hypercapnic respiratory failure.
Name three examples of central nervous system hypercapnic respiratory failure.
Name two examples of neuromuscular hypercapnic respiratory failure.
Name four examples of chest wall hypercapnic respiratory failure.
In general, what types of signs may be evident with respiratory failure?
What might you suspect if your patient tells you that he has been waking up with a severe morning headache?
Would cyanosis be considered an early sign of respiratory failure? Why or why not?
Would tachycardia and mild hypertension be considered an early sign of respiratory failure? What about hypotension?
List six clinical manifestations of hypoxemia and hypoxia.
Lactic acid is accumulating in your patient and he is being acidotic. You are giving a change of shift report and your fellow nurse asks about the patient's prognosis. What do you say?
Why might your hypoxemic/hypoxic patient experience tachycardia and HTN secondary to increased cardiac output then angina, dysrhythmias, and a decreased cardiac output?
The heart tries to compensate for the decreased O2 level in the blood by increasing the heart rate and cardiac output. A cardiovascular hyperdynamic state may also occur due to catecholamine release that is associated with physiologic stress response. As the PaO2 decreases and acidosis increases, the heart muscle may become dysfunction and cardiac output may decrease. In addition, angina and dysrhythmias may occur. All of these consequences result in a further decrease in oxygen delivery.
Why might a chest x-ray of someone with pulmonary edema be misleading?
When would you be considered that a patient's Hgb was too low and therefore effecting their O2 carrying capacity?
A patient with abnormal electrolytes might present with this serious secondary condition.
What is the number one cause of respiratory failure?
An elderly patient presents to your unit. You suspect that he has a UTI but you have not received the results of his urine culture. What action should you take?
Why might a pulmonary artery catheter be placed in a patient experiencing respiratory failure?
What integumentary signs would you see with acute respiratory failure?
What respiratory signs would you see with acute respiratory failure?
What cardiac sign would you see with acute respiratory failure?
What are your four goals for the patient with acute respiratory failure?
What is the best way to prevent acute respiratory failure?
When administering oxygen we should use the minimum or maximum amount tolerated by the patient?
In a patient with respiratory failure the PaO2 should be maintained at which of the following levels? 45-55mmHg, 55-60mmHg, >80mmHg
True or False. In a patient with acute respiratory failure the SaO2 level should be kept at 90% or more at the lowest O2 concentration possible.
Name five ways to mobilize secretions for a patient with acute respiratory failure.
What might you use to reduce airway inflammation causing acute respiratory failure?
If you use corticosteroids to reduce airway inflammation, what secondary condition might you suspect with long term use?
What two medication classes might you use to reduce pulmonary congestion causing acute respiratory failure?
What two medication classes might you use to reduce severe anxiety, pain, and agitation causing acute respiratory failure?