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Chapter 16 Neural Integration II: The Autonomic Nervous System

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created 4 years ago by xley04x
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1

Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of the autonomic nervous system?
controls skeletal muscle
has preganglionic and postganglionic neurons
controls visceral effectors
can trigger visceral reflexes

controls skeletal muscle

2

Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system?
increases heart rate and blood pressure
is the fight-or-flight division
is the thoracolumbar division
increases activity of the digestive tract

increases activity of the digestive tract

3

What is the term for chain of ganglia in the sympathetic nervous system that lie right outside the vertebral column?

sympathetic chain ganglia

4

What is the name of the endocrine gland that is innervated by the sympathetic division of the nervous system and is a modified sympathetic ganglion?

suprarenal medulla

5

Which of the following is NOT an effect of the sympathetic nervous system?
mobilization of energy reserves
elevation of muscle tone
a decrease in heart rate
an increase in mental alertness

a decrease in heart rate

6

Which of the following is NOT a neurotransmitter used by the sympathetic nervous system?
All of the listed neurotransmitters are used by the sympathetic nervous
system.
nitric oxide
norepinephrine
acetylcholine

All of the listed neurotransmitters are used by the sympathetic nervous system.

7

Which of the following sympathetic receptors causes an increase in heart rate and force of contraction and an increase in metabolic activity?

Norepinephrine binds to *beta-1* receptors and causes an increase in heart rate and force of contraction and an increase in metabolic activity.

8

Which of the following is NOT a region where parasympathetic preganglionic neurons are found?
medulla oblongata
spinal cord segment T4
spinal cord segment S2
pons

spinal cord segment T4

9

What is the term for parasympathetic ganglia that are embedded in the tissues of the target organ?

intramural ganglia

10

Which of the following is NOT an effect of the parasympathetic division?
reduction in heart rate
a feeling of energy and euphoria
constriction of the pupils
contraction of the urinary bladder

a feeling of energy and euphoria

11

Which of the following neurotransmitters is released by parasympathetic neurons?

acetylcholine

12

Which parasympathetic receptor is found on ganglionic neurons and causes excitation?

*Nicotinic* receptors are found on ganglionic neurons and cause excitation.

13

In organs that receive dual innervation from the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions, the two divisions produce __________.

opposing effects

14

Visceral reflexes __________.
can be short
are all polysynaptic
can be long
All of the listed responses are correct.

All of the listed responses are correct.

15

Which higher brain region is NOT involved in the control of the autonomic nervous system?
hypothalamus
cerebral cortex
brain stem
cerebellum

cerebellum

16

Learned motor behaviors are __________.

skill memories

17

In what state does active dreaming occur?

rapid eye movement (REM) sleep

18

What part of the brain functions to wake a person from sleep?

reticular activating system (RAS)

19

Which of the following receptor types is activated by lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD)?

LSD stimulates serotonin receptors, causing hallucinations.

20

Which of the following is NOT an effect of aging on the nervous system?
decrease in neurotransmitter production
decrease in blood flow to the brain
increase in synaptic connections
reduction of brain size and weight

increase in synaptic connections

21
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Label the following components in the diagram of the distribution of the sympathetic nervous system.

A. Superior Mesenteric Ganglion
B. Cervical Sympathetic Ganglia
C. Celiac Ganglion
D. Inferior Mesenteric Ganglion
E. Sympathetic Chain Ganglia

22
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Correctly label the parts of the sympathetic neuron and smooth muscle structures.

A. Postganglionic Fiber
B. Varicosities
C. Preganglionic Fiber
D. Ganglionic Neuron
E. Smooth Muscle Cells

23
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Correctly label the autonomic plexuses.

A. Celiac Plexus and ganglion
B. Interior Mesenteric plexus and ganglion
C. Esophageal plexus
D. Cardiac Plexus
E. Hypogastric plexus

24

Place in correct order the sequence of events occurring when the sympathetic nervous system is activated:
1.1 Stimulation of post ganglionic cells in the adrenal medullae
1.2 Release of hormones epinephrine and norepinephrine
1.3 Sensory receptors send information to the CNS, indicating that the body is in danger
1.4 Stimulation of preganglionic neurons in the lateral gray horns of spinal segments T1–L2

1. Sensory receptors send information to the CNS, indicating that the body is in danger
2. Stimulation of preganglionic neurons in the lateral gray horns of spinal segments T1–L2
3. Stimulation of post ganglionic cells in the adrenal medullae
4. Release of hormones epinephrine and norepinephrine

25

An ACh receptor located on ganglionic cells that causes excitation of the ganglionic neuron or muscle fiber by opening chemically gated channels

Nicotinic receptors

26

A sympathetic nervous system receptor that causes the release of intracellular calcium ions from the endoplasmic reticulum to stimulate activity in the cell

Alpha-1 receptor

27

An ACh receptor that is also a G protein and produces longer-lasting effects than nicotinic receptors. Responses can be excitatory or inhibitory

Muscarinic receptor

28

A. A sympathetic nervous system receptor that is found in adipose and causes the breakdown of triglycerides, or lipolysis, for use by other tissues

Beta-3 receptor

29

C. The reception by an organ or tissues of instructions from both the sympathetic and the parasympathetic divisions

Dual innervation

30

B. Learned motor behaviors, such as lighting a match

Skill memories

31

D. The background or resting level of activity in autonomic neurons

Autonomic tone

32

A. The conversion of short-term memories to long-term memories

Memory consolidation

33

B. This is a loss of ACh- and GABA-secreting neurons in which the basal nuclei are affected along with the frontal lobes and ability to control movement and intellect decline.

Huntington's disease

34

D. Caused by disease or trauma, this is a loss of the ability to remember events in the past.

Retrograde amnesia

35

A. This is a loss of loss of higher-order functions caused most often by senile dementia. It is seen most often in the elderly over age 65 but can affect younger individuals.

Alzheimer's disease

36

C. A psychological disorder marked by pronounced disturbances of mood, thought patterns, and behavior that may be linked to excessive dopamine production

Schizophrenia

37

In the somatic nervous system, __________.

a single motor neuron directly controls the activity of a muscle

38

In the autonomic nervous system, __________.

two or more neurons control the activity of an effector; AND a second visceral neuron is between the CNS and the effector

39

As a general rule, the sympathetic division __________.

increases the metabolic rate and reduces digestive and urinary functions

40

The parasympathetic division __________.

activates the "rest and repose" reaction and conserves energy

41

The autonomic nervous system __________.

regulates "automatic" activities and is influenced by the hypothalamus

42

Which of the following statements about the autonomic nervous system is (are) INCORRECT?
1. Loss of all conscious brain activity is not life threatening if food and water are provided, because the autonomic nervous system maintains all needed body functions.
2. Heart rate and blood pressure are increased under parasympathetic stimulation.
3. The parasympathetic division is also called the craniosacral division.
4. The sympathetic and parasympathetic functions most often produce opposing effects on a system or organ.
5. The sympathetic division has short preganglionic fibers.

Heart rate and blood pressure are increased under parasympathetic stimulation.

43

Ganglionic neurons of the sympathetic division can be located in the __________.

sympathetic chain ganglia
adrenal medulla
collateral ganglia
All of the listed responses are correct.

All of the listed responses are correct.

44

The prevertebral (collateral) ganglia of the ANS include the __________.

celiac, superior mesenteric, and inferior mesenteric

45

Which of these would NOT occur under sympathetic stimulation?

activation of energy reserves
increased metabolic rate
increased respiratory rate
heightened mental alertness
increased storage of lipid and glycogen

increased storage of lipid and glycogen

46

The sympathetic division does NOT include which of the following?

adrenal medullae
collateral ganglia
intramural ganglia
chain ganglia

intramural ganglia

47

Jennifer is at a stoplight and begins to accelerate into traffic when the light turns green, but she stops suddenly as a semitrailer runs the red light only a few inches away from her front bumper. Which of the following effects would you NOT expect to find in Jennifer's body?
a general elevation in muscle tone and possibly shivering
increased digestive activity
increased cardiovascular and respiratory activity
increased alertness and feelings of being "on edge"

increased digestive activity

48

The telodendria of sympathetic postganglionic neurons release neurotransmitters through __________.

varicosities

49

The effects of norepinephrine (NE) on the postsynaptic membranes __________.
last longer than the effects of acetylcholine, and they last until NE is
reabsorbed by the telodendria
last until NE is broken down by cholinesterase
last until NE diffuses away
None of the listed responses is correct.

last longer than the effects of acetylcholine, and they last until NE is reabsorbed by the telodendria

50

Stimulation of what type of membrane receptor by norepinephrine would activate enzymes that break down glycogen in skeletal muscles?
beta-2
beta-1
alpha-1
alpha-2

beta-1

51

Stimulation of the beta receptors on the heart muscle would result in __________.

the formation of cAMP

52

Binding to which of the following receptors of the ANS causes a DECREASE in cAMP levels?

alpha-2

53

Which of the following statements about neurotransmitters and receptors is INCORRECT?

Secretory output from the adrenal medullae is about 90–95 percent epinephrine.
Sympathetic stimulation is longer lasting than parasympathetic stimulation.
Sympathetic activation is more widespread than parasympathetic activation.
Norepinephrine is quickly broken down at synapses but not in the bloodstream.
Alpha-1 receptors function by releasing calcium ions from the endoplasmic reticulum of target cells.

Secretory output from the adrenal medullae is about 90–95 percent epinephrine.

54

Which type of sympathetic receptor causes inhibition and a relaxation of smooth muscles along the respiratory tract?

beta-2

55

Which of the following effects is NOT a result of parasympathetic activity?

a general elevation of muscle tone so that a person looks tense and may begin to shiver
an increase in smooth muscle activity along the digestive tract
sexual arousal and stimulation of sexual glands in both genders
constriction of respiratory passageways

a general elevation of muscle tone so that a person looks tense and may begin to shiver

56

Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of the parasympathetic division?

Preganglionic neurons are located in the brain stem and sacral segments of the spinal cord.
The parasympathetic division includes the pelvic nerves.
The parasympathetic division includes the splanchnic nerves.
Ganglia are on or near the target organ.

The parasympathetic division includes the splanchnic nerves.

57

Don has had a long day at work. He comes home, eats dinner, relaxes on the couch, and watches a few television programs. What type of response would you NOT expect to find in Don's body during this relaxation period?

increased respiratory activity
increased motility and blood flow in the digestive tract
decreased heart rate and blood pressure
increased salivary gland secretion
stimulation of urination and defecation

increased respiratory activity

58

Which of the following statements about the parasympathetic division is INCORRECT?

Preganglionic neurons may have their cell bodies in the brain stem.
Ganglia are located relatively close to the central nervous system.
Ganglionic neurons have their cell bodies within or adjacent to the target organs.
Preganglionic neurons may have their cell bodies in spinal cord segments S2 through S4.

Ganglia are located relatively close to the central nervous system.

59

The vagus nerve is number __________ and is part of the __________ division.

X; parasympathetic

60

Nicotinic receptors __________.

open sodium channels when stimulated

61

Which of the following statements is FALSE about autonomic neurotransmitters and receptors in the autonomic nervous system?

Stimulation of alpha-2 receptors generally inhibits or relaxes the postsynaptic cell.
Stimulation of beta-1 receptors always stimulates and increases energy consumption in the postsynaptic cell.
Stimulation of muscarinic receptors always excites the postsynaptic cell.
Stimulation of nicotinic receptors always excites the postsynaptic cell.

Stimulation of muscarinic receptors always excites the postsynaptic cell.

62

Which of the following organs does NOT receive dual innervation?

heart
stomach
urinary bladder
lacrimal gland

lacrimal gland

63

In the absence of stimuli, autonomic motor neurons __________.

show a background level of activity

64

Autonomic tone allows autonomic neurons to __________.

both increase and decrease their activity
decrease their activity
increase their activity
None of the listed responses is correct.

both increase and decrease their activity

65

In the lungs, autonomic tone allows for __________.

finely controlled dilation and constriction of the airways

66

Autonomic fibers entering the thoracic cavity intersect at which of the following plexuses?

inferior mesenteric plexus
cardiac plexus
celiac plexus
All of the listed responses are correct.

cardiac plexus

67
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Which plexus innervates the stomach, pancreas, gallbladder, and liver?
esophageal plexus
pulmonary plexus
cardiac plexus
celiac plexus

celiac plexus

68
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You stand up after sitting in class for an hour. Signals from the baroreceptors in the carotid artery tell the brain that blood pressure is dropping. Your heart must compensate and increase blood pressure. How is this accomplished?

Sympathetic fibers in the cardiac plexus release stimulatory neurotransmitters.

69

Visceral reflexes are __________.

polysynaptic and involuntary

70

The higher centers of the CNS __________.

influence the effects of autonomic reflexes

71

Which of the following visceral reflexes is controlled by the sympathetic division?

light and consensual light reflexes
baroreceptor reflex
swallowing reflex
pupillary reflex

pupillary reflex

72

Which of the following is NOT a feature of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep?

inhibition of somatic motor neurons
contraction of the lateral, medial, inferior, and superior rectus muscles
inhibition of somatic sensory neurons
active dreaming

inhibition of somatic sensory neurons

73

What kind of memory allows you to remember the shape and features of your own face throughout your lifetime?

primary memory
secondary memory
tertiary memory
quaternary memory

tertiary memory

74

When studying in lab, Anne repeats, over and over, the names of the structures she is studying. What is Anne trying to accomplish?

creation of fact memories
conversion from primary memories to secondary memories
memory consolidation
All of the listed responses are correct.

All of the listed responses are correct.

75

Which of the following is NOT an effect of aging on the nervous system?

changes in synaptic organization of CNS neurons
a reduction in brain size and weight
a decrease in blood flow to the brain
an increase in the number of neurons used for dual innervation

an increase in the number of neurons used for dual innervation

76

The heart, lungs, and digestive organs are innervated by __________.
the parasympathetic division
the sympathetic division
both the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions
None of the listed responses is correct.

both the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions

77

True/False. Autonomic tone describes a low background level of neural activity that allows fine adjustment of response in the target cells.

True. If an autonomic motor neuron is inactive, then its only response is to increase its activity. What options does the neuron have if it is maintaining a low level of activity?

78

True/False. Activation of the parasympathetic division leads to relaxation, food, and energy absorption responses.

True. The sympathetic division is associated with the fight or flight response while the parasympathetic division is associated with relaxation and energy absorption processes.

79

True/False. Stimulation of the reticular activating system produces a wave of stimulatory activity in the cerebellum.

False. The diffuse reticular activating system is linked to consciousness. Thus, a wave of activity does not stimulate the cerebellum but stimulates the cerebral cortex, where higher-order processes, such as consciousness, thought, and other functions, are processed.

80

True/False. Drugs known as beta-blockers are frequently given to patients with low blood pressure.

False. Blocking beta-receptors decrease the rate and intensity of contraction. Is that the correct treatment for a patient with low blood pressure?

81

True/False. Polio is an example of a virus-borne infection that affects the nervous system.

True. Rabies would be an additional example of a virus-borne infection affecting the nervous system.

82

Jackson, now a freshman in college, is having difficulty remembering the combination to the locker he had throughout his senior year of high school. The memory of his combination is what type of long-term memory? __________

secondary

83

Postganglionic sympathetic fibers targeting structures in the thoracic cavity form __________ nerves that proceed directly to their peripheral targets.

sympathetic

84

The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system begins at spinal segment T1 and ends at spinal segment __________.

L2

85

The effects of parasympathetic stimulation are more localized and more __________ than those of the sympathetic division.

specific

86

Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is a powerfully hallucinogenic drug that activates __________ receptors in the brain.

serotonin

87

The autonomic nervous system performs which of the following functions?

controlling respiratory functions during times of rest as well as times of activity

88

The lower motor neurons of the somatic nervous system exert direct control over skeletal muscles. By contrast, in the autonomic nervous system there is __________.

a synapse interposed between the central nervous system and the peripheral effector

89

Which of the following is NOT a function of the parasympathetic nervous system?
constriction of respiratory passages
increased secretion of hormones that promote the absorption and utilization of nutrients by peripheral cells
mobilization of energy reserves through the accelerated breakdown of glycogen in muscle and liver cells and the release of lipids by adipose tissues
changes in blood flow and glandular activity associated with sexual arousal

mobilization of energy reserves through the accelerated breakdown of glycogen in muscle and liver cells and the release of lipids by adipose tissues

90

Which system coordinates cardiovascular, respiratory, digestive, urinary and reproductive functions?

autonomic nervous system (ANS)

91

Which division of the nervous system "kicks in" during periods of exertion, stress, or emergency?

sympathetic division of the ANS

92

The nerve bundle that carries preganglionic fibers to a nearby sympathetic chain ganglion is the __________.

white ramus

93

Important functions of the postganglionic fibers that enter the thoracic cavity in autonomic nerves include which of the following?
accelerating the heart rate
increasing the force of cardiac contractions
dilating the respiratory passageways
All of the listed responses are correct

All of the listed responses are correct.

94

The effect of modified neurons in the sympathetic division that secrete neurotransmitters is that they __________.

last longer than those produced by direct sympathetic stimulation

95

Which of the following is unique to the sympathetic nervous system?

chain ganglia

96

At neuroeffector junctions, typical sympathetic postganglionic fibers release:

norepinephrine

97

When specific neurotransmitters are released by postganglionic fibers, stimulation or inhibition of activity depends on __________.

the response of the membrane receptor to the presence of the neurotransmitter

98

Cholinergic postganglionic sympathetic fibers that innervate the sweat glands of the skin and the blood vessels of the skeletal muscles are stimulated during exercise to __________.

keep the body cool and provide oxygen and nutrients to active skeletal muscles

99

Postsynaptic cells of the sympathetic nervous system synapse with the cells they innervate through structures called __________.

varicosities

100

In the parasympathetic division, second-order neurons originate in __________.

intramural ganglia or ganglia associated with the target organs

101

The neurotransmitter released by all parasympathetic neurons is __________.

acetylcholine (ACh)

102

The two types of parasympathetic receptors that occur on the postsynaptic membranes are __________.

nicotinic and muscarinic

103

Pelvic nerves carry which of the following types of information?

parasympathetic neurons innervating the urinary bladder

104

The major effects produced by the parasympathetic division include which of the following?
secretion by digestive glands
increased smooth muscle activity along the digestive tract
constriction of the respiratory passageway
All of the listed responses are correct.

All of the listed responses are correct.

105

Which division of the ANS innervates only visceral structures serviced by the cranial nerves or nerves lying within the abdominopelvic cavity?

parasympathetic division

106

Where dual innervation exists, the two divisions of the ANS commonly have __________.

opposing effects

107

Why is autonomic tone important to autonomic motor neurons?

It allows for an increase or decrease of activity, providing a greater range of control.

108

The LOWEST level of integration in the ANS consists of __________.

regulatory centers in the brain stem that control the viscera

109

Both coordination and regulation of sympathetic function generally occur in centers in the __________.

medulla and spinal cord

110

In the ANS, simple reflexes that provide relatively rapid automatic response to stimuli are based in the __________.

spinal cord

111

The processing center of a visceral reflex is the __________.

interneuron

112

Which of the following statements about long reflexes is FALSE?

They bypass the CNS.

113

Visceral reflexes provide __________.

automatic motor responses

114

The cellular mechanisms that seem to be involved in memory formation and storage include which of the following?
increased neurotransmitter release
facilitation of synapses
formation of additional synaptic connections
All of the listed responses are correct.

All of the listed responses are correct.

115

Which two components of the limbic system are essential to memory consolidation?

the amygdaloid body and hippocampus

116

A state of awareness of and attention to external events and stimuli implies __________.

consciousness

117

Increasing stimulation to the reticular activating system (RAS) makes an individual __________.

more alert to sensory information

118

Schizophrenia may be caused by an excessive production of which neurotransmitter?

dopamine

119

Disturbance of which of the following neurotransmitters produces motor problems, such as those found in Parkinson's disease?

dopamine

120

Which of the following is a common age-related anatomical change in the nervous system?
increased brain size and weight
an increased number of neurons
increased blood flow to the brain
None of the listed responses is correct.

None of the listed responses is correct.

121

One of the problems associated with aging and the nervous systems is the development of plaques in the CNS. Which of the following accurately describes plaques?

an accumulation of extracellular fibrillar proteins and abnormal dendrites and axons

122

Why is the axon of a ganglionic neuron called a postganglionic fiber?
It carries impulses away from the ganglion.
It carries impulses to the target organ.
It carries impulses toward the ganglion.
All of the listed responses are correct.

It carries impulses away from the ganglion.

123

The effects produced by sympathetic postganglionic fibers in spinal nerves include which of the following?
stimulation of secretion by sweat glands
acceleration of blood flow to skeletal muscles
dilation of the pupils and focusing of the eyes
All of the listed responses are correct.

All of the listed responses are correct.

124

The summary effects of the collateral ganglia include which of the following?

redirection of blood flow and energy use by visceral organs and release of stored energy

125

Stimulation of alpha-1 receptors on a target cell triggers a __________.

depolarization that has an excitatory effect

126

What is the major structural difference between sympathetic preganglionic and ganglionic fibers?

Preganglionic fibers are short, and postganglionic fibers are long.

127

Which of the following adrenergic receptors produce(s) stimulatory effects, including stimulation of metabolism and energy consumption?

both alpha-1 and beta-1

128

The effects of parasympathetic stimulation are usually __________.

brief in duration and restricted to specific organs and sites

129

How does a medication that blocks beta receptors help a patient with high blood pressure?
Beta-2 receptors trigger a decrease in the size of the respiratory passageways.
Beta-3 receptors trigger a decrease in levels of lipolysis.
Beta-1 receptors in the heart do not stimulate an increase in the force and rate of heart contractions.
All of the listed responses are correct.

Beta-1 receptors in the heart do not stimulate an increase in the force and rate of heart contractions.

130

During a crisis, the event necessary for the individual to cope with stressful and potentially dangerous situations is called __________.

sympathetic activation

131

The two classes of sympathetic receptors include __________.

alpha and beta receptors

132

Intramural ganglia are components of the parasympathetic division that are located __________.

inside the tissues of visceral organs

133

Parasympathetic preganglionic fibers of the vagus nerve entering the abdominopelvic cavity join the __________.

celiac plexus

134

Sensory nerves deliver information to the CNS along the__________.
spinal nerves
cranial nerves
autonomic nerves that innervate peripheral effectors
All of the listed responses are correct.

All of the listed responses are correct.

135

Which of the following lists only sympathetic reflexes?

cardioacceleratory, vasomotor, pupillary, ejaculation reflexes


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