Chapter 4 Connective Tissues

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1

True or False
Connective tissues are the most abundant and widely distributed of the primary tissues.

True

2

True or False
The amount of connective tissue in each organ is the same.

False
the amount varies

3

True or False
Skin is primarily connective tissue, but the brain is very little.

True

4

What are the four main classes of connective tissue?

1. Connective Tissue Proper
2. Cartilage
3. Bone
4. Blood

5

The connective tissue does more than connect, it also is responsible for:

1. Binding and supporting
2. Protecting
3. Insulating
4. Storing Reserve Fuel
5. Transporting

6

Connective tissues share three things that set them apart from primary tissue:

1. Common Origin - all connective tissue arise from MESENCHYME
2. Degrees of Vascularity - supply of blood vessels
3. Extracellular matrix - the primary tissue is composed of cells. Connective tissue is composed of extracellular matrix, which makes them stronger

7

What is Mesenchyme?

Embryonic Tissue

8

What are the three main structural elements of connective tissue?

1. Ground substances
2. Fibers
3. Cells

9

Ground substance + Fibers = __________

Extracellular matrix

10

True or False
Connective tissues can be soft and used as packing material for organs.

True

11

True or False
Connective tissue can be tough and ropelike, like tendons and ligaments.

True

12

True or False
No two types of connective tissue have a common structural plan.

False
they all do

13

What is unstructured material that fills the space between the cells and contains the fibers?

Ground substance

14

A ground substance is composed of:

1. Interstitial fluid
2. Cell adhesion proteins
3. Proteoglycans

15

_______________, such as fibronectin and laminin serve mainly as a connective tissue glue that connects the connective tissue cells to the matrix elements.

Cell adhesion proteins

16

__________ is the protein core where capital GAG's are attatched.

Proteoglycans

17

What are the large negatively charged polysaccharides that stick out from the core protein like a brush?

GAG's

18

The ________ the GAG content, the ________ viscous the ground substances.

Higher...
More

19

The __________ of connective tissues provides support.

Fibers

20

Three types of fibers in the matrix:

1. Collagen
2. Elastic
3. Reticular

21

Contains a rubberlike protein called elastin, which allows them to stretch and recoil.

Elastic

22

Extremely strong, stronger than steel fibers.

Collagen

23

True or False
Elastic fibers allow the collagen fibers to stretch.

False
the collagen fibers do not stretch, elastic fibers can only stretch until the collagen fibers get pulled tight.

24

What fibers are useful in lungs, skin, and blood vessel walls?

Elastic

25

What forms a lot of delicate networks that surround small blood vessels and support the soft tissue of organs?

Reticular fibers

26

The major class of connective tissue has a resident cell type that exists in ________ and ________ forms.

Immature
Mature

27

Immature cells are indicated by the suffix __________.

Blast

28

________ are actively mytotic cells that secrete the ground substance and the fibers for their particular matrix.

Immature cells

29

The primary blast cell types by connective tissue class are:
1. Connective tissue proper; ________
2. Cartilage; ________
3. Bone; ________
4. Blood; ________

1. Fibroblast
2. Chondroblast
3. Osteoblast
4. Hematopoieic stem cells

30

Once they synthesize the matrix, the blast cells assume their __________ mode.

Mature

31

Immature cells are indicated by the suffix __________.

Cyte

32

________ maintains the health of the matrix.

Mature cells

33

Connective tissue is home to an assortment of other cell types, such as;

1. Fat cells
2. White blood cells
3. Mast cells
4. Macrophages

34

Chemicals that mediate inflammation, especially in severe allergies are ________, ________, and ________.

1. Heparin
2. Histamine
3. Proteases

35

All classes of connective tissue consist of living cells surrounded by a ________.

Matrix

36

Connective tissue proper has two sub-classes. What are they?

1. Loose connective tissues
2. Dense connective tissues

37

All mature connective tissues are connective tissue proper except ________, ________, and ________.

1. Bone
2. Cartilage
3. Blood

38

What are the three forms of loose connective tissues?

1. Areolar
2. Adipose
3. Reticular

39

The three forms of dense connective tissues are:

1. Dense regular
2. Dense irregular
3. Elastic

40

Supporting and binding other tissues
Holding body fluids
Defending against infection
Storing nutrients as fat

These are all functions of the ________ connective tissue.

Areolar
(loose)

41

________ are flat branching cells that appear spindle shaped in profile.

Fibroblasts

42

When a body region is inflamed the areola sucks up extra fluid and the affected area swells and becomes puffy. This is called ________.

Edema

43

The most widely distributed connective tissue in the body is the ________.

Areolar

44

________ is similar to areolar connective tissues, but it's nutrient storing ability is greater.

Adipose

45

True or False
Water accounts for 90% of an adipose tissue's mass.

False
Adipocytes account for 90%

46

Adipose tissue can be called white adipose tissue, or ________
or brown adipose tissue, or ________.

White Fat...
Brown Fat

47

White fat stores ________.
Brown fat is used to ________ the body.

Nutrients...
Warm

48

________ resembles areolar connective tissue, but it only contains reticular fibers.

Reticular Connective Tissue

49

________ cells are scattered along fibroblasts.

Reticular

50

Reticular tissues form a labrynth-like ________ or internal framework.

Stroma

51

The three varieties of dense connective tissue are:

1. Dense regular
2. Dense irregular
3. Elastic

52

Dense connective tissues are often called ________ connective tissues.

Fibrous

53

________ contains densely packed bundles of collagen fibers running in the same direction.

Dense regular connective tissues

54

True or False
Collagen fibers are straight and can be stretched out.

False
Collagen fibers are slightly wavy, which allows for a little stretch, but once the fibers are straightned, there is no further give.

55

Cords that attach muscles to bones are called ________ which are formed by ________.

Tendons...
Dense regular connective tissues

56

Flat, sheet-like tendons are called ________.

Aponeuroses

57

________ bind bones together at joints.

Ligaments

58

Tendons aponeuroses and ligaments are formed from ________ connective tissues.

Dense regular

59

Dense regular connective tissues also form ________ which is a fibrous membrane that wraps around muscles, blood vessels, and nerves, binding them together like plastic sandwich wrap.

Fascia

60

________ has the same structural elements as the regular variety, but the bundles of collagen fibers are much thicker and are arranged irregularly.

Dense irregular connective tissue

61

Dense irregular connective tissue is found in the skin as the leathery ________.

Dermis

62

Very stretchy dense regular connective tissue is called ________ connective tissue.

Elastic

63

________ stands up to both tension and compression and has qualities between dense connective tissue and bone.

Cartilage

64

Cartilage lacks ________ and is avascular.

Nerve fibers

65

Avascular means it receives its nutrients by __________.

Diffusion from blood vessels

66

True or False
Cartilage is up to 80% water.

True

67

What produces new matrix until the skeleton stops growing at the end of adolescence?

Condroblasts

68

Mature cartilage cells are called:

Condrocytes

69

Cavities where condrocytes are found in groups are called ________.

Lacunae

70

True or False
Cartilage has the ability to heal quickly.

False
They heal slowly because aging cartilage cells lose their ability to divide.

71

What happens if cartilage calcifies or ossifies?

The condrocytes are poorly nourished and die.

72

What are the three varieties of cartilage?

1. Hyaline
2. Elastic
3. Fibrocartilage

73

What is the most abundant cartilage in the body?

Hyaline

74

What covers the ends of long bones?

Hyaline

75

During childhood, hyaline cartilage consists as ________, actively growing regions near the ends of long bones.

Epiphyseal plates

76

________ cartilage is almost identical to hyaline cartilage but has more elastic fibers.

Elastic

77

Structurally, ________ is between hyaline cartilage and dense regular connective tissue.

Fibrocartilage

78

Bone is also called ________ tissue.

Osseous

79

Bones of the skeleton provide cavities for storing ________ and synthesizing ________.

Fat...
Blood cells

80

__________ is what makes bones stronger than cartilage.

Inorganic calcium salts

81

________ produced the organic portion of the matrix, and then bone salts are deposited on and between the fibers.

Osteoblasts

82

Mature bone cells, or ________, reside in the lacunae.

Osteocytes

83

Closely packed structural units are called ________, formed of concentric rings of bony matrix surrounding central canals containing the blood vessels and nerves serving the bone.

Osteons

84

What is the fluid within blood vessels?

Blood

85

What is the most atypical connective tissue?

Blood

86

True or False
Blood connects blood vessel walls to blood cells.

False
blood does not connect anything

87

Why is blood classified as a connective tissue?

It's used for transporting substances.
It develops from mesenchyme and consists of blood cells surrounded by a nonliving fluid matrix called blood plasma.

88

True or False
The majority of blood cells are red blood cells.

True

89

The fibers of blood are ________ protein molecules.

Soluble


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