Chapter 4 Arousal, Stress and Anxiety

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1

Which personality disposition(s) is (are) related to change in state anxiety?
a. trait anxiety
b. social physique anxiety
c. self-esteem
d. all of the above
e. a and c

d. all of the above

2

A moment-to-moment change in one's perceived physiological activation is referred to as
a. cognitive state anxiety
b. somatic state anxiety
c. activation
d. trait anxiety
e. stress

b. somatic state anxiety

3

Hanin's individualized zones of optimal functioning model suggests that
a. each individual has a specific optimal level of efficiency
b. performance is best when arousal is moderate
c. performance is best when arousal is high
d. the zone of optimal functioning is the same for all individuals

a. each individual has a specific optimal level of efficiency

4

The importance placed on an event and the uncertainty that surrounds the actions of that event are sources of
a. state anxiety
b. trait anxiety
c. arousal
d. personal stress
e. situational stress

e. situational stress

5

Increased arousal affects attentional focus in which of the following ways?
a. narrowing of focus
b. broadening of focus
c. increase of scanning
d. a and b
e. b and c

a. narrowing of focus

6

The relationship between arousal and performance depends on one's interpretation of the arousal level. This is the basic approach of
a. catastrophe theory
b. drive theory
c. reversal theory
d. inverted-U hypothesis
e. zones of optimal functioning

c. reversal theory

7

In evaluative situations, individuals with high trait anxiety tend to exhibit
a. high arousal
b. low state anxiety
c. high state anxiety
d. high somatic anxiety
e. low cognitive anxiety

c. high state anxiety

8

Which of the following is (are) true regarding the home-court advantage?
a. It is greatest in baseball and football.
b. Between 1924 and 1982, the home team in the baseball World Series won 77% of the time when there was a seventh game.
c. Between 1984 and 1994 in the National Basketball Association, the home team won 47% of the time when there was a seventh game during the play-offs.
d. a and b
e. none of the above

e. none of the above

9

According to catastrophe theory, to recover from a catastrophe the athlete must
a. completely relax physically
b. control her worries through cognitive restructuring
c. reactivate herself in a controlled manner
d. all of the above
e. a and b

d. all of the above

10

Which of the following is (are) true?
a. Increased anxiety is always debilitating to performance.
b. Athletes who perceive their anxiety as facilitating rather than harming their performances exhibit higher levels of performance.
c. The intensity of anxiety is more important than its direction.
d. a and b
e. b and c

b. Athletes who perceive their anxiety as facilitating rather than harming their performances exhibit higher levels of performance.

11

Appropriate guidelines for applying arousal and anxiety knowledge include
a. recognizing the signs of increased arousal and anxiety
b. recognizing how personal and situational factors influence arousal and performance
c. tailoring coaching and instructional practices to individuals
d. all of the above
e. a and c

d. all of the above

12

Which theory predicts a linear relationship between arousal and performance?
a. catastrophe theory
b. drive theory
c. inverted theory
d. individualized zones of optimal functioning
e. reversal theory

b. drive theory

13

Multidimensional anxiety theory predicts
a. a negative relationship between cognitive anxiety and performance
b. an inverted-U relationship between somatic anxiety and performance
c. an inverted-U relationship between cognitive anxiety and performance
d. a and c
e. a and b

e. a and b

14

Which of the following is NOT symptomatic of heightened state anxiety?
a. profuse sweating
b. slowed breathing
c. increased muscle tension
d. inability to concentrate
e. sleeping difficulties

b. slowed breathing

15

One's general level of anxiety that stays relatively stable over time refers to
a. trait anxiety
b. state anxiety
c. cognitive anxiety
d. somatic anxiety
e. arousal

a. trait anxiety

16

The physiological response and decision making occur in which stage of the stress process?
a. stage 1
b. stage 2
c. stage 3
d. stage 4

c. stage 3

17

In Hanin's work on individualized zones of optimal functioning, he argues that for best performance to occur, an athlete needs
a. an optimal level of state anxiety
b. an optimal level of trait anxiety
c. an optimal level of state anxiety and other emotions
d. an optimal level of arousal
e. an optimal level of physiological arousal

c. an optimal level of state anxiety and other emotions

18

The results of Weinberg and Hunt's (1976) study on college students with high and low trait anxiety demonstrated that
a. increased muscle soreness contributed to inferior performance
b. increased muscle tension contributed to inferior performance
c. increased coordination difficulties contributed to inferior performance
d. a and c
e. b and c

e. b and c

19

A substantial imbalance between demand and response capability under conditions in which failure has important consequences refers to
a. arousal
b. sensational pressure
c. stress
d. state anxiety
e. trait anxiety

c. stress

20

There is a direct relationship between one's level of
a. cognitive anxiety and somatic anxiety
b. trait anxiety and state anxiety
c. arousal and stress
d. a and c
e. b and c

b. trait anxiety and state anxiety

21

Arousal refers to the
a. direction of motivation
b. intensity of motivation
c. frequency of motivated behavior
d. interaction of cognition and emotions
e. a and d

b. intensity of motivation

22

Which of the following is NOT a physical manifestation of excess state anxiety?
a. worry
b. muscle tension
c. attentional problems
d. a and c
e. b and c

a. worry

23

A highly trait-anxious athlete (compared to a less trait-anxious athlete) would perceive competition as
a. more threatening and less anxiety producing
b. less threatening and less anxiety producing
c. more threatening and more anxiety producing
d. less threatening and more anxiety producing
e. none of the above

c. more threatening and more anxiety producing

24

Athletes lower in self-esteem are more likely to experience
a. low confidence and high state anxiety
b. low confidence and low state anxiety
c. low confidence and low trait anxiety
d. high confidence and high state anxiety
e. low confidence and low arousal

a. low confidence and high state anxiety

25

The linear relationship between arousal and performance suggests that
a. as arousal increases, performance decreases
b. as arousal decreases, performance decreases
c. as arousal increases, performance increases
d. as arousal decreases, performance increases
e. arousal performance increases to an optimal level, and beyond this, performance decreases

c. as arousal increases, performance increases

26

According to the catastrophe model, a "catastrophe" occurs with
a. high state and trait anxiety
b. high cognitive and somatic anxiety
c. high cognitive anxiety and high physiological arousal
d. high somatic anxiety and low physiological arousal
e. none of the above

c. high cognitive anxiety and high physiological arousal

27

A quarterback needs to shift his attentional focus from surveying the field for receivers to delivering a pass. This shift would be from
a. broad–external to broad–internal
b. broad–external to broad–external
c. broad–external to narrow–external
d. broad–external to narrow–internal
e. narrow–external to broad–external

c. broad–external to narrow–external

28

The inverted-U hypothesis predicts that
a. as arousal increases, performance decreases
b. arousal can be either too low or too high
c. top performance occurs at a moderate level of arousal
d. a and c
e. b and c

e. b and c

29

The catastrophe theory suggests that performance is determined by a complex interaction of
a. arousal and stress
b. arousal and trait anxiety
c. arousal and state anxiety
d. physiological arousal and cognitive anxiety
e. state and trait anxiety

d. physiological arousal and cognitive anxiety

30

Increased levels of anxiety result in alterations in visual search patterns such as
a. gaze tendencies
b. eye fixations
c. mental acuity
d. all of the above
e. a and b

e. a and b


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