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Chapter 1 Welcome to Sport and Exercise Psychology

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1

Educational sport psychologists usually have years of training in
a. psychology
b. education
c. sport and exercise science
d. sociology
e. educational psychology

c. sport and exercise science

2

The least reliable method of obtaining knowledge is
a. introspection
b. intuition
c. shared experience
d. a single case study
e. systematic observation

b. intuition

3

Coleman Griffith worked with all of the following famous coaches and athletes except
a. Red Grange
b. Knute Rockne
c. Dizzy Dean
d. Babe Ruth

d. Babe Ruth

4

Which successful coach is noted for adopting a sport science approach in his coaching?
a. "Doc" Counsilman
b. Robert Rotella
c. Jim Thorpe
d. Casey Stengel
e. a and b

a. "Doc" Counsilman

5

Which of the following is NOT a current or future trend in the field of sport and exercise psychology?
a. more emphasis on training in clinical psychology and counseling
b. increase in quantitative research methodologies
c. increased emphasis on ethics and competency
d. increased interest in psychological skills training
e. continuing tension between academic and applied sport psychology

b. increase in quantitative research methodologies

6

Which of the following events did not occur during period 5?
a. Journal of Sport Psychology was established.
b. The Olympic committee hired the first full-time sport psychologist.
c. The journal The Sport Psychologist was established.
d. Sport psychologists started licensure standards.
e. APA Division 47 was formed.

d. Sport psychologists started licensure standards.

7

Research by Landers and his colleagues, using biofeedback techniques to train elite marksmen to shoot between heartbeats, is a good example of a
a. cognitive–behavioral orientation
b. cognitive–affective orientation
c. behavioral orientation
d. psychophysiological orientation
e. physiological–environmental orientation

d. psychophysiological orientation

8

The father of American sport psychology is
a. Coleman Griffith
b. Rainer Martens
c. Dan Landers
d. Dan Gould
e. Robert Singer

a. Coleman Griffith

9

The major difference between how a practitioner and a researcher (using the scientific method) would investigate a problem is that the researcher's approach would be more
a. systematic
b. controlled
c. empirical
d. all of the above
e. a and b

d. all of the above

10

Emotional disorders affecting sport performance, such as eating disorders and drug abuse, would best be treated by a
A. clinical sport psychologist
b. developmental psychologist
c. educational sport psychologist
d. Rogerian sport therapist
e. Gestalt sport therapist

A. clinical sport psychologist

11

Coleman Griffith established the first research laboratory in sport psychology at the University of
a. Notre Dame
b. Illinois
c. Minnesota
d. Wisconsin
e. Iowa

b. Illinois

12

Which professional sport psychology association is responsible for developing standards for certification of individuals working in applied sport psychology settings?
a. North American Society for the Psychology of Sport and Physical Activity
b. International Society of Sport Psychology
c. Association for the Advancement of Applied Sport Psychology
d. American Psychological Association Division 47
e. Applied Sport Psychology Society

c. Association for the Advancement of Applied Sport Psychology

13

Which of the following will the field of sport and exercise psychology face in the future?
a. unqualified people doing consulting in sport psychology
B. few full-time positions in sport psychology involving consulting with athletes
c. the need for physical education and exercise specialists to receive sport and exercise psychology information
d. all of the above
e. a and c

d. all of the above

14

The most reliable method of obtaining knowledge is
a. introspection
b. a single case study
c. systematic observation
d. scientific method

d. scientific method

15

Which of the following is NOT a quality of scientific research?
a. controlled
b. systematic
c. empirical
d. critical
e. infallible

e. infallible

16

Sport psychology specialists have three roles. These include
A. teaching, research, and consulting
b. teaching, administration, and consulting
c. research, administration, and teaching
d. teaching, intervention, and research
e. intervention, teaching, and consulting

A. teaching, research, and consulting

17

Which type of question would NOT fall under the category of "What effect do psychological factors have on an individual's performance?"
a. Does self-confidence influence a child's ability to learn to swim?
b. How does anxiety affect a tennis player's service accuracy?
c. Does running reduce one's anxiety and depression?
d. How does punishment influence an individual's motivation to continue participation in sport?
E. How does concentration affect performance in fine motor tasks?

c. Does running reduce one's anxiety and depression?

18

Behavior is determined by the interaction of the environment and personal makeup of the performer. This idea is an example of a
a. cognitive–behavioral orientation
b. behavioral orientation
c. cognitive–affective orientation
d. social–psychological orientation
e. cognitive–environmental orientation

d. social–psychological orientation

19

The limitations of professional practice knowledge include its
a. susceptibility to biasing influences
b. uncertain reliability
c. lack of explanations
d. all of the above
e. a and c

d. all of the above

20

Sport and exercise psychology is first and foremost a
a. science
b. art
c. applied field of study
d. laboratory-based field of study
e. none of the above

a. science

21

Which of the following are sport psychology organizations?
a. Association for the Advancement of Applied Sport Psychology (AAASP)
b. North American Society for the Psychology of Sport and Physical Activity (NASPSPA)
c. American Sport Psychology Association
d. all of the above
e. a and b

e. a and b

22

Which of the following statements is (are) true?
a. Sport psychology focuses on the concerns of the elite athlete.
b. Sport psychology focuses on the competitive sport of young athletes.
c. Sport psychology is actually concerned with both sport and exercise settings.
d. Sport psychology focuses on recreational athletes.
e. none of the above

c. Sport psychology is actually concerned with both sport and exercise settings.

23

In the fifth period, sport psychology experienced a tremendous growth in
a. theoretical development
b. applied research
c. professional service
d. a and b
e. b and c

e. b and c

24

Scientifically derived knowledge has some limitations, including that it
a. is reductionistic
b. is very fast to evolve
c. tends to be conservative
d. all of the above
e. a and c

e. a and c

25

Which of the following researchers was NOT prominent during period 1 (1895-1920)?
a. E.W. Scripture
b. G.T. Patrick
c. Norman Triplett
d. R. Cummins
e. Ed McAuley

e. Ed McAuley

26

Which of the following events did NOT occur in period 6 (2000-present)?
a. Psychology of Sport and Exercise journal is published in Europe.
b. Division 47 of the American Psychological Association focuses on sport psychology as a specialized competency area.
c. Association for the Advancement of Applied Sport Psychology is established.
d. a and c
e. b and c

c. Association for the Advancement of Applied Sport Psychology is established.

27

15. The leading researcher during period 3 (1938-1965) was
a. Franklin Henry
b. Richard Schmidt
c. George Stelmach
d. Jack Adams
e. Scott Kelso

a. Franklin Henry

28

Which of the following is NOT a general ethical principle outlined by the American Psychological Association?
a. social responsibility
b. integrity
c. professional and scientific responsibility
d. individualization
e. competence

d. individualization

29

Credit for much of the development of sport psychology internationally goes to _____________, the first president of the International Society for Sport Psychology.
a. Franklin Henry
b. Dietmar Klein
c. Yuri Hanin
d. Ferruccio Antonelli
e. Gershon Tanenbaum

d. Ferruccio Antonelli

30

Which of the following is (are) seen as a major growth area in the field in the upcoming years?
a. exercise psychology
b. life skills development
c. personality
d. all of the above
e. a and b

e. a and b

31

Which of the following explain(s) the sport psychology research-to-practice gap?
a. few applied forums in which to disseminate research to practitioners
b. emphasis on basic laboratory research in the 1960s and 1970s
c. emphasis on field experiments in the 1980s
d. all of the above
e. a and b

e. a and b

32

Research by Weinberg and Gould investigating sources of stress among successful and unsuccessful elite wrestlers is a good example of a
a. social–psychological orientation
b. psychophysiological orientation
c. cognitive–behavioral orientation
d. cognitive–affective orientation
e. physiological–environmental orientation

c. cognitive–behavioral orientation

33

Knowledge gained through experience working in exercise and sport science field situations is called
a. empirical knowledge
b. professional practice knowledge
c. scientific knowledge
d. professional knowledge
e. theoretical knowledge

b. professional practice knowledge

34

The major strength of scientifically derived knowledge is its
a. validity
b. reliability
c. importance
d. impact on society
e. none of the above

b. reliability

35

Zajonc's social facilitation theory predicts that
a. performance on well-learned tasks is facilitated by an audience
b. performance on novel tasks is facilitated by an audience
c. performance on well-learned tasks is hindered by an audience
d. performance is not affected by an audience
e. performance is improved on both novel and well-learned tasks in front of an audience

a. performance on well-learned tasks is facilitated by an audience

36

The ultimate goal of science is
a. prediction
b. description
c. explanation
d. control
e. theory

e. theory

37

Which of the following is NOT a method of knowing?
a. a single case study
b. shared public experience
c. introspection
d. rationalism
e. systematic observation

d. rationalism

38

Actively applying knowledge of sport and exercise psychology requires
a. keeping up to date on your scientific knowledge base
b. holding realistic expectations concerning the strengths and limitations of scientific principles
c. applying scientific principles in your professional practice setting
d. all of the above
e. a and b

d. all of the above

39

The strength of professional practice knowledge is its
a. holistic nature
b. innovative contribution
c. scientific validity and reliability
d. all of the above
e. a and b

e. a and b

40

Which company (started by sport psychologist Graham Jones) has taken sport psychology concepts and applied them to the business world?
a. Lane 4 Management Group
b. TLC and Associates
c. Wal-Mart
d. Goldman-Sachs
e. AT&T

a. Lane 4 Management Group

41

Which of the following are sport and exercise psychology journals?
a. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology
b. The Sport Psychologist
c. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology
d. all of the above
e. a and c

d. all of the above


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