Peripheral Nervous System

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1

What are the main divisions of the PNS?

-sensory receptors
-afferent nerves
-efferent nerves
-motor endings

2

What are the 2 types of sensory receptor?

-Somatic sensory receptors
-Visceral sensory receptors

3

What are somatic sensory receptors for?

-touch, pain, vibration, temp, limb motion, hearing, vision, smell

4

What are the visceral sensory receptors for?

-stretch, pain, temp, chemical changes

5

What is the structure of a nerve?

-endoneurium
-perineurium
-epinuerium

6

Describe endoneurium:

-bundles of individual fibers
-located around Schwann cells and myelin sheath

7

Describe perineurium:

-bundles fibers into fasicles

8

Describe epineurium:

-bundles fascicles into a nerve

9

How many cranial nerves are there?

-there are 12 cranial nerves

10

I Olfactory Nerve

-Sensory: Smell

11

II Optic Nerve

-Sensory: Vision(light)

12

III Oculomotor Nerve

-Motor: Eye Movements

13

IV Trochlear Nerve

-Motor: Eye Movements

14

V Trigeminal Nerve

-Sensory: Face(skin & mucose of nose & mouth)
-Motor: Chewing

15

VI Abducens Nerve

-Motor: Eye Movements

16

VII Facial Nerve

-Sensory:Taste
-Motor:Face(Tears, expression & salivary glands)

17

VIII Vestibulocochlear Nerve

-Sensory: Hearing, Balance

18

IX Glossopharyngeal Nerve

-Sensory:Taste
-Motor: Pharynx(swallowing) & salivary glands

19

X Vagus Nerve

-Mixed: from pons to pharynx, larynx, and abdominal and thoracic viscera

20

XI Accessory Nerve

-Motor: Neck & Upper Back

21

XII Hypoglossal Nerve

-Motor: Tongue

22

How many pairs of spinal nerves are there?

-31 pairs exiting through the intervertebral foramen

23

What is the function of the dorsal rami?

-serve the skin nd muslces of the posterior trunk

24

What is the function of the ventral rami?

-forms a complex of networks(plexus) for anterior

25

What are some infections that affect the spinal nerves?

-Herpes
-Poliomyelitis
-Anesthetic leprosy

26

Explain Herpes Virus:

-virus can stay dormant in sesnroy ganglia & erupt later in life
-Shingles in adult from childhood chicken pox

27

Explain Poliomyelitis:

-virus causes degeneration of the motor neurons in the ventral horn of the spinal cord.
-spread through contaminated water.

28

Explain Anesthetic leprosy:

-bacteria invades sensory neurons & person cannot detect tissue damage & continues to use damaged area resulting in infection, ulceration, gangrene, or amputation

29

What are the 2 motor divisions?

-Somatic Nerves
-ANS

30

Describe Somatic Nerves:

-effectors
-motor endings at the nueromuscular junction concentrate NT

31

What are the 2 pathways of the Autonomic Nervous System?

-Parasympathetic Nerves
-Sympathetic Nerves

32

Describe ANS:

-(involuntary) to internal organs has two pathways

33

Describe Parasympatheric Nerves:

-routine daily activities with the ability to relax& slow down organ function

34

Describe Sympathetic Nerves:

-vigorous exercise, excitement, emergency response

35

What are a few examples of reflexes?

-stretch reflex
-withdrawal reflex
-cross extensor reflex

36

What is the function of stretch reflex?

-muscle spindle receptors send action potentials in response to fibers stretching(EX:Knee Jerk)

37

What is the function of withdrawal reflex?

-Removing body parts from painful stimulus(EX:Arm Withdrawal from touching stove)

38

What is the function of cross extensor reflex?

-One part of the body withdrawals while the opposite side of the body extends


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