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Chapter 13

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1

__________ are receptors that can respond to changes in pressure.

Photoreceptors
Chemoreceptors
Nociceptors
Mechanoreceptors

Mechanoreceptors

2

Pressure, pain, and temperature receptors in the skin are ________.

proprioceptors
interoceptors
mechanoreceptors
exteroceptors

exteroceptors

3

Potentially damaging stimuli that result in pain are selectively detected by ________.

nociceptors
interoceptors
proprioceptors
photoreceptors

nociceptors

4

Which receptors adapt most slowly?

smell receptors
nociceptors
touch receptors
pressure receptors

nociceptors

5

Feeling a gentle caress on your arm would likely involve all of the following except ________.

Meissner's corpuscles
tactile discs
Pacinian corpuscles
hair follicle receptors

Pacinian corpuscles

6
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Which of the receptor types above might function as a nociceptor?

A

7
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Which of the receptor types pictured function as exteroceptors?

A,C,D,E

8
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Which of the receptor types pictured function exclusively as proprioceptors?

B

9
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Which of the receptor types contribute to the sense of touch by responding to deep pressure stimuli?

D

10

Pacinian corpuscles can be exteroceptors, interoceptors, or proprioceptor,

True
False

T

11

Which of the following is not a way that sensory receptors are classified?

location in the body
structural complexity
sensitivity to a stimulus
type of stimulus detected

sensitivity to a stimulus

12

Which type of sensory receptor allows us to feel an insect landing on our skin?

chemoreceptor
thermoreceptor
mechanoreceptor
nociceptor

mechanoreceptor

13

Which of the following is NOT used to classify sensory receptors?

the number of dendritic endings present
the type of stimulus they detect
location
structural complexity

the number of dendritic endings present

14

Which of the following is composed of encapsulated nerve endings?

tactile discs
muscle spindles
free nerve endings of sensory neurons
hair follicle receptors

muscle spindles

15

The first level of neural integration in the somatosensory system is the __________ level.

receptor
abstraction
perceptual
circuit

receptor

16

__________ do NOT exhibit the property of adaptation.

Tonic receptors
Phasic receptors
Photoreceptors
Sensory receptors

Tonic receptors

17

In the somatosensory system there are no third-order neurons in the cerebellum.

True
False

T

18

Which of the following is not a main level of neural integration in the somatosensory system?

receptor
perceptual
circuit
segmental

segmental

19

Which of the following is an incorrect statement regarding the occurrence of a sensation?

The stimulus energy must occur within the receptor's receptive field.
The stimulus energy must match the specificity of the receptor.
A generator potential in the associated sensory neuron must reach threshold.
The stimulus energy must be converted into the energy of a graded potential
called a transduction potential.

The stimulus energy must be converted into the energy of a graded potential
called a transduction potential

20

Select the correct definition.

Magnitude estimation is the simplest level of sensation.
Spatial discrimination allows us to recognize textures.
Pattern recognition allows us to see a familiar face.
Perceptual detection is the ability to detect how much stimulus is applied to the body.

Pattern recognition allows us to see a familiar face.

21

All processing at the circuit level going up to the perceptual level must synapse in the ________.

pons
thalamus
reticular formation
medulla

thalamus

22

Which of the following is not an aspect of sensory perception?

magnitude estimation
feature abstraction
visceral identification
spatial discrimination
pattern recognition

visceral identification

23

Transduction refers to conversion of ________.

presynaptic nerve impulses to postsynaptic nerve impulses
afferent impulses to efferent impulses
stimulus energy into energy of a graded potential
receptor energy to stimulus energy

stimulus energy into energy of a graded potential

24

Three main levels of neural integration operate in the somatosensory system. Which level involves processing in the sensory areas of the cerebral cortex?

circuit level
receptor level
perceptual level
integrative level

perceptual level

25

Why might an individual experience the phenomenon known as "referred pain"?

Because the eyes may detect an injury before it is sensed, the brain creates referred sensations of pain before there is an authentic sensory stimulus.
Visceral pain afferents travel along the same pathways as somatic pain fibers.
Sensory nuclei in the thalamus become overwhelmed and send impulses to the wrong sensory cortex.
When the pain associated with an injury is severe, the brain will shut down certain cognitive functions as a defense mechanism.

Visceral pain afferents travel along the same pathways as somatic pain fibers.

26

Nerves that only carry impulses away from the central nervous system (CNS) are called __________.

afferent nerves
mixed nerves
motor nerves
sensory nerves

motor nerves

27

__________ are collections of neuron cell bodies associated with nerves in the peripheral nervous system (PNS).

Myelin sheaths
Fascicles
Nuclei
Ganglia

Ganglia

28

The hyperalgesia that is common in phantom limb pain could be blocked if a new drug was developed that could prevent (without triggering any side-effects) the ______.

diffusion of calcium ions through NMDA receptors
release of enkephalins
binding of enkephalins to NMDA receptors
diffusion of enkephalins across synaptic clefts

diffusion of calcium ions through NMDA receptors

29

Nerves that carry impulses toward the CNS only are ________.

motor nerves
afferent nerves
efferent nerves
mixed nerves

afferent nerves

30

After axonal injury, regeneration in peripheral nerves is guided by ________.

Wallerian cells
dendrites
Schwann cells
Golgi organs

Schwann cells

31

Regeneration within the CNS ________.

is promoted by growth inhibitors and glial scars
typically allows axonal sprouting of 20 mm
is prevented due to growth-inhibiting proteins of oligodendrocytes
is more successful than with the PNS

is prevented due to growth-inhibiting proteins of oligodendrocytes

32

Select the statement that is most correct.

Ganglia are collections of neuron cell bodies in the spinal cord that are associated with efferent fibers.
The dorsal root ganglion is a motor-only structure.
The cell bodies of afferent ganglia are located in the spinal cord.
Ganglia associated with afferent nerve fibers contain cell bodies of sensory neurons.

Ganglia associated with afferent nerve fibers contain cell bodies of sensory neurons.

33

Which connective tissue layer directly surrounds each axon in a nerve?

perineurium
epineurium
endomysium
endoneurium

endoneurium

34

Choose the FALSE statement about nerves.

Nerve axons are surrounded by a loose connective tissue layer called the endoneurium.
Nerves vary in size.
Nerves consist of parallel bundles of myelinated and nonmyelinated axons.
The majority of a nerve's bulk is due to axons.

The majority of a nerve's bulk is due to axons.

35

There are __________ pairs of cranial nerves.

6
8
10
12
14

12

36

The majority of the cranial nerves attach to the __________.

spinal cord
cerebellum.
brain stem.
forebrain

brain stem.

37

Spinal nerves are all classified as __________.

mixed nerves
afferent nerves
sensory nerves
motor nerves

mixed nerves

38

The glossopharyngeal nerve is the only cranial nerve that contains sensory fibers.

True
False

False

39

The only cranial nerves to extend beyond the head and neck region are the vagus nerves.

True
False

True

40

External strabismus and ptosis could be caused by damage to the oculomotor nerve.

True
False

T

41

The ________ nerve is not a branch of the trigeminal nerve.

ophthalmic
maxillary
mandibular
cervical

cervical

42

Bell's palsy is ________.

characterized by paralysis of facial muscles
often caused by inflammation of the trigeminal nerve
characterized by loss of vision
characterized by partial paralysis of diaphragm muscles

characterized by paralysis of facial muscles

43

Mixed cranial nerves containing both motor and sensory fibers include all except which of the following?

olfactory
facial
oculomotor
trigeminal

olfactory

44

The cranial nerves that have neural connections with the tongue include all except the ________.

trochlear
trigeminal
glossopharyngeal
facial

trochlear

45

Problems in balance may follow trauma to which nerve?

vestibulocochlear
trigeminal
abducens
accessory

vestibulocochlear

46

A fracture of the ethmoid bone could result in damage to which cranial nerve?

accessory
olfactory
glossopharyngeal
vagus

olfactory

47

A patient who received a blow to the side of the skull exhibits the following signs and symptoms on that side of the face: he is unable to close his eye, and the corner of his mouth droops. Which cranial nerve has been damaged?

glossopharyngeal
facial
accessory
hypoglossal

facial

48

David, an aspiring baseball player, was struck on the left side of his face with a fastball pitch. He was not wearing a safety helmet. His zygomatic arch was crushed, as well as parts of the temporal bone. Following the accident and reconstructive surgery, he noted that his left lower eyelid was still drooping and the corner of his mouth sagged. What nerve damage did he sustain?

Trigeminal nerve damage on his left side
Facial nerve damage on his left side
Trigeminal nerve damage on his right side
Facial nerve damage on his right side
Oculomotor nerve damage on his left side

Facial nerve damage on his left side

49

A nurse is asked about the cause of the excruciating pain of tic douloureux. How should the nurse answer?

The excruciating pain is caused by damage to the optic nerve, resulting in anopsias.
The excruciating pain is caused by damage to the vestibulocochlear nerve, resulting in nerve deafness.
The excruciating pain is caused by inflammation of the trigeminal nerve. Pressure on the trigeminal nerve root can turn normal stimuli, like tooth brushing, into painful stimuli.
The excruciating pain is caused by paralysis of the facial muscle, a condition called Bell's palsy.
The excruciating pain is caused by inflammation of the facial nerve. The nerve is constantly transmitting pain signals to the brain.

The excruciating pain is caused by inflammation of the trigeminal nerve. Pressure on the trigeminal nerve root can turn normal stimuli, like tooth brushing, into painful stimuli.

50

The second cranial nerve forms a chiasma at the base of the brain for partial crossover of neural fibers.

True
False

T

51

The cranial nerve with a cervical origin (spinal cord) is the ________.

vagus
hypoglossal
accessory
glossopharyngeal

accessory

52

Which of the following cranial nerves carries only sensory information?

oculomotor
olfactory
trigeminal
abducens

olfactory

53

Which cranial nerve transmits information about our sense of equilibrium?

abducens
vagus
vestibulocochlear
optic

vestibulocochlear

54

The phrenic nerve serves the __________.

shoulder
neck
diaphragm
ear

diaphragm

55

In carpal tunnel syndrome, the __________ is compressed.

radial nerve
axillary nerve
median nerve
musculocutaneous nerve

median nerve

56

Hiccups could occur if there was irritation or damage to the ______.

dorsal rami of spinal nerves associated with the C3-C5 region of the spinal cord
afferent neurons of spinal nerves associated with the C3-C5 region of the spinal cord
cutaneous branches of rami associated with the C3-C5 region of the spinal cord
motor branches of ventral rami associated with the C3-C5 region of the spinal cord

motor branches of ventral rami associated with the C3-C5 region of the spinal cord

57

The brachial plexus can be palpated at the lower lateral border of the sternocleidomastoid muscle. Injury to the brachial plexus could cause weakness or paralysis to all of the following EXCEPT the ______.

deltoid muscle
biceps brachii muscle
sternocleidomastoid muscle
muscles that flex the wrist and fingers

sternocleidomastoid muscle

58

In carpal tunnel syndrome, there may be tingling and numbness in the thumb due to compression of the ______.

thumb muscles
cutaneous branches of the median nerve
muscular branches of the posterior cord that supply the median nerve
None of the listed responses is correct.

cutaneous branches of the median nerve

59
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Which of the following statements is true?

The effects of neurotransmitters released by parasympathetic postganglionic neurons are always inhibitory.
The effects of neurotransmitters released by somatic motor neurons may be either stimulatory or inhibitory.
The effects of neurotransmitters released by sympathetic postganglionic neurons are always stimulatory.
The effects of neurotransmitters released from either sympathetic or parasympathetic postganglionic neurons may be stimulatory or inhibitory.

The effects of neurotransmitters released from either sympathetic or parasympathetic postganglionic neurons may be stimulatory or inhibitory.

60
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Which of the following is the site of the release of the neurotransmitter norepinephrine?

terminus of a somatic motor neuron
terminus of a parasympathetic postganglionic neuron
within the ganglia of the sympathetic division
within the ganglia of the parasympathetic division
terminus of a sympathetic postganglionic neuron

terminus of a sympathetic postganglionic neuron

61
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The circular structures shown within both pathways B and C represent which of the following?

tracts
rami
nuclei
ganglia

ganglia

62

A joint and the muscle that moves that joint tend to be innervated by different nerves.

True
False

F

63

CNS nerve fibers lack the intrinsic capacity to regenerate, while PNS nerve fibers are able to regenerate.

True
False

T

64

Which reflex is triggered when a stranger suddenly grasps your arm?

stretch reflex
plantar reflex
tendon reflex
crossed-extensor reflex

crossed-extensor reflex

65

Which reflex is important for maintaining muscle tone?

flexor reflex
stretch reflex
tendon reflex
crossed-extensor reflex

stretch reflex

66
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Increased nerve impulse activity in the neuron labeled A will generally result in ______.

the contraction of the both muscles labeled F and G
the relaxation of the both muscles labeled F and G
the relaxation of the muscle labeled F
the relaxation of the muscle labeled G

the relaxation of the muscle labeled G

67

n a crossed-extensor reflex, if the right arm was grabbed it would flex and the left arm would ________.

extend
adduct
abduct
also flex

extend

68

A reflex that causes muscle relaxation and lengthening in response to muscle tension is called a ________.

crossed-extensor reflex
flexor reflex
plantar reflex
Golgi tendon reflex

Golgi tendon reflex

69

The patellar "knee jerk" reflex is an example of a(n) ________.

crossed-extensor reflex
stretch reflex
extensor thrust reflex
stress reflex

stretch reflex

70

Reciprocal inhibition means that while one sensory nerve is stimulated, another sensory neuron for synergistic muscles in the same area is inhibited and cannot respond.

True
False

F

71

A knee-jerk reflex that is unusually strong may be caused by ______.

inhibition of reciprocal inhibition
transmission of excitatory signals from the brain to the neurons that form the femoral nerve
suppression of muscle spindle activity in the lower limb
enhancement of activity in the antagonistic muscles

transmission of excitatory signals from the brain to the neurons that form the femoral nerve

72

Anatomically, all general sensory receptors are encapsulated nerve endings.

True
False

F

73

Inborn or intrinsic reflexes are ________.

autonomic only
rapid, predictable, and can be learned responses
involuntary, yet may be modified by learned behavior
always mediated by the brain

involuntary, yet may be modified by learned behavior

74
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Which of the following muscles might be represented by that labeled F in the figure during the patellar (knee jerk) reflex?

rectus femoris
tibialis anterior
soleus
biceps femoris

rectus femoris

75
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The nerve fibers labeled B and C are both classified as which of the following?

alpha efferent fibers
type Ia fibers
type II fibers
gamma efferent fibers

alpha efferent fibers

76
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The synapse between which of the following two neurons is a part of a monosynaptic reflex arc?

B and C
A and D
A and B

A and B

77
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What is the specific function of the structure labeled E?

increasing tension of the antagonistic muscle
increasing tension of the surrounding muscle
determination of muscle tension
determination of muscle length

determination of muscle length

78
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figure below, which letter points to an afferent neuron?

A
B
C
D

A

79

Which of the following is the correct simple spinal reflex arc?

effector, afferent neuron, integration center, efferent neuron, receptor
receptor, efferent neuron, integration center, afferent neuron, effector
receptor, afferent neuron, integration center, efferent neuron, effector
effector, efferent neuron, integration center, afferent neuron, receptor

receptor, afferent neuron, integration center, efferent neuron, effector

80

The peripheral nervous system (PNS) includes the brain and spinal cord.

True
False

f

81

Which of the following does NOT occur as people age?

Peripheral nerves die off.
Reflexes occur more slowly.
Sensory receptors atrophy.
Muscle tone in the face and neck starts to decrease.

Peripheral nerves die off.

82

What parts of the brain ultimately plan and coordinate complex motor activities?

cerebrum and basal nuclei
cerebrum, cerebellum, and basal nuclei
cerebellum and basal nuclei
cerebrum and cerebellum

cerebellum and basal nuclei

83

The cerebellum and basal nuclei are involved in regulating motor activity, starting
and stopping movements, and coordinating postural movements.

True
False

T

84

The knee-jerk reflex is an example of a __________.

stretch reflex
tendon reflex
flexor reflex
superficial reflex

stretch reflex

85

Somatic reflexes activate __________.

cardiac muscle
glands
skeletal muscle
smooth muscle

skeletal muscle

86

Which structure is involved in the segmental level of motor control?

cerebellum
brain stem
basal nuclei
spinal cord

spinal cord

87

Which of the following lists the hierarchy of motor control from lowest to highest level of control?

precommand level, projection level, segmental level
projection level, precommand level, segmental level
segmental level, projection level, precommand level
segmental level, precommand level, projection level

segmental level, projection level, precommand level

88

The thickest and longest nerve in the body is the __________.

pudendal nerve
femoral nerve
obturator nerve
sciatic nerve

sciatic nerve

89

The primary nerve that controls breathing is found in which nerve plexus?

sacral
lumbar
brachial
cervical

cervical

90

What type of nerve fibers are found in the ventral ramus of a spinal nerve?

autonomic only
both sensory and motor
sensory only
motor only

both sensory and motor

91

A fall or an improperly delivered gluteal injection could result in ________.

neurofibromatosis
phantom limb pain
postpoliomyelitis muscular atrophy
sciatica

sciatica

92

Which nerve is compressed in carpal tunnel syndrome?

radial
median
axillary
ulnar

median

93

Ralph sustained a leg injury in a bowling accident and had to use crutches. Unfortunately, he never took the time to learn how to use them properly. After two weeks of use, he noticed his fingers were becoming numb. Then he noticed his arms were getting weaker and had a tingling sensation. What could be his problem?

Compression of the musculocutaneous nerve (in the region of the armpit) may cause temporary cessation of nervous transmission, often called "Saturday night paralysis."
Compression of the median nerve (in the region of the armpit) may cause temporary cessation of nervous transmission, often called "Saturday night paralysis."
Pulling on the brachial plexus is causing weakness in the muscles of his arms, and may lead to paralysis.
Compression of the radial nerve (in the region of the armpit) may cause temporary cessation of nervous transmission, often called "Saturday night paralysis."
The median nerve is being compressed, making it difficult to pick up small objects, and resulting in the tingling sensations in his fingers.

Compression of the radial nerve (in the region of the armpit) may cause temporary cessation of nervous transmission, often called "Saturday night paralysis."

94

If the ventral root of a spinal nerve were cut, what would be the result in the tissue or region that nerve supplies?

a complete loss of sensation and movement
a complete loss of voluntary movement
loss of neither sensation nor movement but only of autonomic control
complete loss of sensation

a complete loss of voluntary movement

95

The flexor muscles in the anterior arm (biceps brachii and brachialis) are innervated by what nerve?

radial
median
ulnar
musculocutaneous

musculocutaneous

96

The sciatic nerve is a combination of which two nerves?

pudendal and posterior femoral cutaneous
posterior femoral cutaneous and tibial
pudendal and common fibular
common fibular and tibial

common fibular and tibial

97

Striking the "funny bone" is actually stimulation of (or injury to) the ________.

radial nerve
ulnar nerve
median nerve
sciatic nerve

ulnar nerve

98

Spinal nerves exiting the cord from the level of L4 to S4 form the ________.

sacral plexus
femoral plexus
thoracic plexus
lumbar plexus

sacral plexus

99

A major nerve of the lumbar plexus is the ________.

iliohypogastric
sciatic
femoral
ilioinguinal

femoral

100

Starting at the spinal cord, the subdivisions of the brachial plexus are (in order):

trunks, divisions, cords, and roots
roots, divisions, cords, and trunks
divisions, roots, trunks, and cords
roots, trunks, divisions, and cords

roots, trunks, divisions, and cords

101

The posterior side of the thigh, leg, and foot is served by the ________ nerve.

common fibular
obturator
tibial
femoral

tibial

102

Which of the following nerves does not arise from the brachial plexus?

ulnar
phrenic
radial
median

phrenic

103

The obturator nerve branches from the sacral plexus.

True
False

False

104

Irritation of the phrenic nerve may cause diaphragm spasms called hiccups.

True
False

t

105

Dorsal and ventral rami are similar in that they both contain sensory and motor fibers.

True
False

t

106

Dermatomes are skin segments that relate to sensory innervation regions of the spinal nerves.

True
False

t

107

The dorsal ramus consists only of motor fibers bringing information to the spinal cord.

True
False

f

108

The musculocutaneous nerve is a major nerve of the brachial plexus.

True
False

t

109

The meningeal branch of a spinal nerve actually reenters the vertebral canal to innervate the meninges and blood vessels.

True
False

t

110

Sciatica has no direct affect on ______.

perception of sensory information from the skin that covers the front of the leg
perception of sensory information from the skin that covers the back of the leg
control of the adductor longus
control of the semimembranosus

control of the adductor longus

111

herniated lumbar disc could interfere with ______.

skin sensations from the lateral thigh
skin sensations from the medial thigh
adduction of the thigh
All of the listed responses are correct.

All of the listed responses are correct.

112

If "wrist drop" were to appear, there would also be an increased probability of ______.

inability to extend the forearm
inability to flex the fingers
inability to pronate the forearm
inability to contract the biceps brachii

inability to extend the forearm

113

Damage to the ulnar nerve could result in the inability to ______.

supinate or pronate the forearm
flex the wrist
extend the forearm
All of the listed responses are correct.

flex the wrist


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