Chapter 2 -- Ventilation

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Cardiopulmonary Anatomy and Physiology (6th ed), Jardins.
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College: Second year
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1

Alveolar ventilation

Inspired air that reaches the alveoli.

2

Alveoli

Out pouching of lung tissue through which gas exchange between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood takes place.

3

Apnea

Complete absence of spontaneous ventilation.

4

Barometric pressure

760 mmHg (universal).

5

Biot's breathing

Short episodes of rapid, uniformly deep inspiration followed by 10-30 seconds of apnea.

6

Boyle's law

Volume of gas is inversely proportional to its pressure at constant temperature.
- Inspiration -- diaphragm contracts; volume increases and pressure decreases (757 mmHg)
- Expiration -- diaphragm relaxes; volume decreases and pressure increases (763 mmHg)

7

Cheyne-strokes breathing

10-30 seconds of apnea followed by a gradual increase in the volume and frequency of breathing

8

Dead space ventilation

Inspired air that does not reach the alveoli.

9

Diaphragm contracts

Volume increases and pressure decreases (757 mmHg).

10

Driving pressure

Pressure difference between two points in a tube or vessel.

11

Dyspnea

Difficulty breathing, of which the individual is aware.

12

End-expiration

Portion of a ventilatory cycle at which expiration stops.

13

End-inspiration

Portion of a ventilatory cycle at which inspiration stops.

14

Eupnea

Normal, spontaneous breathing.

15

Expiration

When the diaphragm relaxes, the alveolar pressure rises to 763 mmHg.

16

Gas

Always moves from a high-pressure area to a low-pressure area.

17

Hyperapnea

Increased depth of breathing with or without an increased frequency.

18

Hyperventilation

Increased alveolar ventilation.

19

Inspiration

1. Diaphragm contracts.
2. Thorax expands.
3. Trans-respiratory changes from 0 to +3.
4. Inspiration occurs.
5. Alveolar pressure continues to rise as the alveoli fill with air.
6. Once the alveolar pressure reaches 760 mmHg again, inspiration ends.
7. Thorax recoils.
8. Diaphragm relaxes.
9. Alveolar pressure continues to rise as the lungs and the thorax recoil on the alveoli.
10. This pressure gradient causes gas to flow out of the lungs.
11. Expiration begins.

20

Mechanisms of pulmonary ventilation

- During inspiration, barometric pressure is greater than alveolar pressure
- During expiration, alveolar pressure is greater than barometric pressure

21

Orthopnea

Patient is comfortable breathing in an upright position.

22

Phases of ventilation

1. Inspiration
2. End-inspiration
3. Expiration
4. End-expiration

23

Pressure gradient

Pressure difference.

24

Purpose of transrespiratory pressure

Causes airflow into and out of the lungs.

25

Tachyapnea

Rapid rate of breathing.

26

Three types of dead space

1. Anatomic
2. Alveolar
3. Physiologic

27

Tidal volume

Volume of air that moves into and out of the lungs in one quiet breath.

28

Trans-respiratory pressure

Difference between atmospheric and alveolar pressure.

29

Transpulmonary pressure

Difference between alveolar and pleural pressure.

30

Ventilation

Results from a pressure gradient in the trans-respiratory pressure.


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