Chapter 3 Cells: The Living Units

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Chapter 3 Cells: The Living Units Matching questions, True / false questions, fill in blank questions, short answer questions, Clinical / essay questions
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Using Figure 3.1, match the following:

1) Second messenger.

2) G protein.

3) Ligand.

4) Enzyme.

5) Cyclic AMP.

6) Receptor protein.

7) Neurotransmitters.

Using Figure 3.1, match the following:
1) E

2) D

3) A

4) C

5) E

6) B

7) A

card image

Using Figure 3.2, match the following:

8) Nonpolar region of phospholipid.

9) Glycocalyx.

10) Polar region of phospholipid.

11) Peripheral protein.

12) Integral protein.

13) Identification ʺtagsʺ for the cell.

14) Hydrophilic portion.

Using Figure 3.2, match the following:

8) C

9) A

10) B

11) E

12) D

13) A

14) B


Match the following:

15) Forms part of the protein synthesis site in the cytoplasm.

16) Act as ʺinterpreterʺ molecules that recognize specific amino acids and nucleotide base sequences.

17) Attaches the correct amino acid to its transfer RNA.

18) Provides the energy needed for synthesis reactions.

19) Found in the cytoplasm, this structure specifies the exact sequence of amino acids of the protein to be made.

20) May be attached to the ER or scattered in the cytoplasm.

A) Transfer RNA
C) Synthetase enzymes
D) Ribosomal RNA
E) Messenger RNA

15) D

16) A

17) C

18) B

19) E

20) D


Match the following:
21) Chromosomes decoil to form chromatin.

22) Chromosomal centromeres split and chromosomes migrate to opposite ends of the cell.

23) Nuclear membrane and nucleolus disintegrate.

24) Chromosomes align on the spindle equator.

25) Centrioles move to opposite ends of the cell.

A) Telophase
B) Metaphase
C) Early prophase
D) Anaphase
E) Late prophase

21) A

22) D

23) E

24) B

25) C


Match the following:

26) Plays a role in the synthesis of steroid-based hormones and proteins.

27) The actual site of protein synthesis.

28) Hollow cytoskeletal elements that act as organizers for the cytoskeleton.

29) Dense spherical bodies in the nucleus that are the synthesis site for ribosomal RNA.

30) Houses DNA and RNA.

A) Ribosomes
B) Endoplasmic reticulum
C) Microtubules
D) Nucleoli
E) Nucleus

26) B

27) A

28) C

29) D

30) E


True/False Questions
1) Each daughter cell resulting from mitotic cell division has exactly as many chromosomes as the parent cell.



2) Apoptosis is programmed cell suicide, but cancer cells fail to undergo apoptosis.



3) The spindle is formed by the migration of the chromatin



4) Final preparation for cell division is made during the cell life cycle subphase called G2.



5) Chromatin consists of DNA and RNA.



6) In osmosis, movement of water occurs toward the solution with the lower solute concentration.



7) The genetic information is coded in DNA by the regular alternation of sugar and phosphate molecules.



8) A process by which large particles may be taken into the cell for food, protection of the body, or for disposing of old or dead cells is called phagocytosis.



9) The orderly sequence of the phases of mitosis is prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase.



10) Diffusion is always from areas of greater to areas of lesser concentration.



11) Facilitated diffusion always requires a carrier protein.



12) Pressure caused by gravity is necessary for any filtration pressure to occur in the body.



13) DNA transcription is another word for DNA replication



14) The glycocalyx is often referred to as the ʺcell coat,ʺ which is somewhat fuzzy and sticky with numerous cholesterol chains sticking out from the surface of the cell membrane.



15) In their resting state, all body cells exhibit a resting membrane potential ranging from -50 to about +50 millivolts.



16) Microfilaments are thin strands of the contractile protein myosin.



17) Interstitial fluid represents one type of extracellular material.



18) Hyperplasia generally means that an organ will increase in size due to the excessive formation of extracellular fluids



19) A chemical that inhibits DNA synthesis has yet to be found in aging cells.



20) The cell (plasma) membrane normally contains substantial amounts of cholesterol.



21) Aquaporins are believed to be present in red blood cells and kidney tubules, but very few other cells in the body.



22) Most organelles are bounded by a membrane that is quite different in structure from the lipid bilayer of the plasma membrane.



23) Only one cell type in the human body has a flagellum.



24) Microtubules are hollow tubes made of subunits of the protein tubulin.



25) Telomeres are the regions of chromosomes that code for the protein ubiquitin.



26) Nitric oxide may act as a biological messenger.



1) The RNA that has an anticodon and attaches to a specific amino acid is ________ RNA.



2) Water may move through membrane pores constructed by transmembrane proteins called



3) ________ is the division of the cytoplasmic mass into two parts.



4) The metabolic or growth phase of a cell life cycle is called ________.



5) In order for the DNA molecule to get ʺshort and fatʺ to become a chromosome, it must first wrap around small molecules called ________.



6) ________ are hollow tubes made of spherical protein subunits called tubulins.



7) Aerobic cellular respiration occurs in the ________.



8) Two very important second messengers used in the G protein-linked receptor mechanism are cyclic AMP and ________.

ionic calcium


9) The most common extracellular ion is ________.



10) The process of discharging particles from inside a cell to the outside is called ________.



11) A red blood cell would swell if its surrounding solution were ________.



12) A ________ is a channel between cells.



13) Describe two important functions of the Golgi apparatus.

Answer: To modify, sort, and package proteins.


14) Why can we say that a cell without a nucleus will ultimately die?

Answer: Without a nucleus, a cell cannot make proteins, nor can it replace any enzymes or other cell structures (which are continuously recycled). Additionally, such a cell could not replicate.


15) Are Brownian motion, diffusion, and osmosis seen only in living tissue?

Answer: No. Since they are passive processes that do not require energy, they can occur in the absence of any cellular processes.


16) What forces maintain a steady state ʺrestingʺ membrane potential?

Answer: Both diffusion and active transport mechanisms operate within the cell membrane to maintain a resting membrane potential.


17) Briefly describe the glycocalyx and its functions.

Answer: The glycocalyx is the sticky, carbohydrate-rich area on the cell surface. It helps bind cells together and provides a highly specific biological marker by which cells can recognize each other.


18) Explain the term genetic code. What does it code for?

What are the letters of the code?

Answer: The genetic code is the information encoded in the nucleotide base sequence of DNA. A sequence of three bases, called a triplet, specifies amino acid in a protein. The letters of the code are the four nucleotide bases of DNA designated as A, T, C, and G.


19) Why are free radicals so dangerous to cells, and how are they dealt with by the body?

Answer: Free radicals are highly reactive chemicals that cause havoc in any cellular environment by reacting with things they should not. Cells with peroxisomes have enzymes specific to reducing free radicals into less reactive chemicals.


20) In all living cells hydrostatic and osmotic pressures exist. Define these pressures and explain how they are used in the concept of tonicity of the cell.

Answer: Hydrostatic pressure is the pressure of water exerted on the cell membrane. Osmotic
pressure is created by different concentrations of molecules in a solution separated by the cell membrane. Since these pressures are exerted on the membrane they can be used by the cell to change the shape of the cell, regulate substances entering and exiting the cell, and bring about the polarity of the cell.


21) What is the common route of entry for flu viruses into a cell?

Answer: Flu viruses and diphtheria toxins use receptor-mediated endocytosis. The virus can attach to the receptors or to the substances the receptors accept to ʺhitch a rideʺ into the cell.


22) Other than the nucleus, which organelle has its own DNA?



23) How are the products of free ribosomes different from membrane-bound ribosomes?

Answer: Free ribosomes make soluble proteins that function in the cytosol. Membrane-bound ribosomes produce proteins that are to be used on the cell membrane or exported from the cell.


24) How are peroxisomes different from lysosomes?

Answer: Some of the peroxisomes are oxidases which use oxygen to detoxify harmful substances.
They are very good at neutralizing free radicals. Peroxisomes divide by simply budding. Lysosomes have powerful hydrolytic enzymes that will pretty much destroy anything they come in contact with. They are manufactured by the Golgi apparatus.


25) Briefly name the subphases of interphase and tell what they do.


G1 - growth phase. The cell is metabolically active and the centriole begins to divide at the end of this phase.

S - DNA replicates itself. New histones are made and assembled into chromatin.

G2 - Enzymes and proteins are synthesized and centriole replication is completed. This is the final phase of interphase.


Clinical Questions
1) The client was admitted to the hospital for severe dehydration. Explain what changes occur in
extracellular and intracellular fluid compartments during dehydration.

Answer: Fluid volume deficit occurs when the body loses both water and electrolytes from the
extracellular fluid compartment. Fluid is initially lost from the intravascular compartment. Then fluid is drawn from the interstitial compartment into the intravascular compartment, depleting the interstitial compartment. To compensate for the decreased volume, the body then draws intracellular fluid out of the cells. This could lead to collapse and death.


2) Your client has the flu and reports 5-6 loose stools a day. He has experienced an isotonic fluid
volume loss. Explain what an isotonic fluid loss means.

Answer: An isotonic fluid volume loss occurs when water and electrolytes are lost in equal proportion.


3) You are giving a tap water enema to a patient. An adverse effect of the tap water enema is
water intoxication.


Answer: A tap water enema is a hypotonic solution. Based on osmosis, water diffuses to the solution of higher concentration leading to water intoxication.


4) Your patient has a respiratory disease that has literally paralyzed the cilia. Explain why this
patient would be at an increased risk for a respiratory infection.

Answer: Ciliated cells that live in the respiratory tract propel mucus, laden with dust particles and bacteria, upward and away from the lungs. If the cilia are paralyzed, bacteria remain in the lungs and may cause infection.


5) Describe the difference of cell division between normal cells and cancer cells.

Answer: Normal cells divide in two distinct events-mitosis and cytokinesis. Cancer cells divide wildly, which makes them dangerous to their host.


6) Research shows that neurofibrillary tangles are the primary cause of Alzheimerʹs disease.
Neurofibrillary tangles are associated with microtubules. Based on your knowledge of microtubules, explain what may happen to microtubules to cause Alzheimerʹs disease.

Answer: Microtubules determine the overall shape of the cell, among other things. They are dynamic organelles constantly growing from the centrosome, dissembling and then reassembling. In Alzheimerʹs disease the structure of the microtubule collapses.


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