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Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance, Chapter 26 P Besaw

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1

Where is the majority of water stored in the human body?

intracellular fluid (ICF) compartment

2

Select the person in the following list who would have the highest percentage of water in his or her body.

a 6-month-old baby boy

3

What solute in body fluids determines most of their chemical and physical reactions?

electrolytes

4

The most abundant cation in intracellular fluid is potassium.

True

5

Which of the following is an electrolyte?

potassium

6

The fluid that bathes the cells found in tissues is called __________.

interstitial fluid

7

What is the most abundant intracellular anion?

HPO42

8

What is the most abundant intracellular cation?

K+

9

What is the most common cation found in the interstitial fluid?

Na

10

Which of the following creates the greatest osmotic pressure?

H3PO4

11

The movement of fluids between cellular compartments ________.

is regulated by osmotic and hydrostatic forces

12

In a given day, what is the typical value for water intake?

2500 ml

13

What accounts for the route through which most fluid is lost in a day?

urine

14

How much water is generated per day from cellular metabolism?

250 ml

15

Which of the following is NOT involved in triggering the thirst mechanism?

increase in blood pressure

16

What receptors does the brain use to detect changes in osmolality?

osmoreceptors

17

What hormone helps to maintain extracellular fluid (ECF) osmolality when concentrations become too high?

antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

18

What type of water imbalance increases the amount of fluid in all compartments?

hypotonic hydration

19

Which of the following conditions promotes edema?

hypoproteinemia

20

What is the hallmark of hypotonic hydration?

hyponatremia

21

Which of the following would NOT be expected to lead to edema?

hyponatremia

22

The role of ADH is to __________.

increase water reabsorption

23

Under normal circumstances, most water is lost in __________.

urine

24

The body's water volume is closely tied to a powerful water "magnet." What magnet is referred to here?

ionic sodium

25

What is the driving force for water intake?

thirst

26

Which of the following is NOT a risk factor for dehydration?

increased muscle mass

27

Which of the following regulates the secretion of K+ into the filtrate?

aldosterone

28

What results from increased levels of aldosterone?

increased Na+ reabsorption

29

Which of the following does NOT impact how much sodium is reabsorbed?

transport maximum of the renal proximal tubule

30

PTH (parathyroid hormone) acts on the __________ to __________ Ca2+ reabsorption.

DCT; increase

31

Potassium balance is controlled mainly by renal mechanisms.

True

32

Which of the following is NOT a hormone involved in water and electrolyte balance?

thyroxine

33

Which hormone raises blood calcium levels?

PTH

34

A patient is discovered to have a strange craving for iron objects. To try to determine the cause, her physician decides to order tests to determine if this patient might have some type of ______.

anemia

35

Which of the following abnormalities would not be observed in a patient who has Addison's disease?

hypertension

36

Hypersecretion of aldosterone results in hypokalemia, which causes hyperpolarization of neurons; this in turn results in ______.

the need for a stronger than normal stimulus in order to trigger an action potential

37

Which of the following is the only logical explanation for why hypocalcemia increases neuromuscular excitability and causes muscle tetany?

Low plasma calcium ion concentration increases the permeability of neuron membranes to sodium ions, thereby causing depolarization that in turn increases the likelihood of action potentials being generated.

38

Starvation would cause which of the following acid-base conditions? Also, determine what type of compensation (metabolic or respiratory) there would be.
Hint 1.

During starvation, the body must break down fats for metabolism, which causes a buildup of ketones in the body.

metabolic

39

A patient is admitted to the hospital with the following plasma values: pH = 7.2, pCO2 = 55 mmHg, and HCO3¯ = 30 mEq/L. What is the acid base imbalance?
Hint 1.

Normal pH = 7.35 to 7.45; normal pCO2 = 35 to 45 mmHg; normal HCO3¯ = 22 to 26 mEq/L

respiratory acidosis with metabolic compensation

40

A patient is admitted to the hospital with the following plasma values: pH = 7.5, pCO2 = 45 mmHg, and HCO3¯ = 30 mEq/L. What is the acid-base imbalance?
Hint 1.

Normal pH = 7.35 to 7.45; normal pCO2 = 35 to 45 mmHg; normal HCO3¯ = 22 to 26 mEq/L

metabolic alkalosis with no compensation

41

A patient is admitted to the hospital with the following plasma values: pH = 7.2, pCO2 = 25 mmHg, and HCO3¯ = 18 mEq/L. What is the acid base imbalance?
Hint 1.

Normal pH = 7.35 to 7.45; normal pCO2 = 35 to 45 mmHg; normal HCO3¯ = 22 to 26 mEq/L

metabolic acidosis with respiratory compensation

42

Diarrhea can lead to which acid/base disturbance? Assuming compensation, would it be a metabolic or respiratory compensation?
Hint 1.

Diarrhea causes a loss of bicarbonate ions.

metabolic acidosis with respiratory compensation

43

Emphysema can lead to which acid/base disturbance? What would be the compensation?
Hint 1.

A patient with emphysema would retain CO2.

respiratory acidosis; kidneys will retain more HCO3 and excrete H+

44

Of the three buffering mechanisms in the body, which is the strongest?
Hint 1.

This system is also the slowest system.

renal system

45

The bicarbonate buffer system is one of the chemical buffer systems of the body. How would the bicarbonate buffer system work if sodium hydroxide were added to a solution?
Hint 1.

The bicarbonate buffer system is a mixture of carbonic acid (weak acid) and its salt sodium bicarbonate (weak base).

A hydrogen on carbonic acid would dissociate and join the hydroxyl group on the base to form water and sodium bicarbonate.

46

The respiratory system is one of the three systems that regulate acid-base balance in the body. How does it work to decrease an acidosis?
Hint 1.

Think about the main function of the respiratory system.

Carbonic acid is broken down into water and CO2; the CO2 is then exhaled.

47

In a respiratory acidosis the kidney would do which of the following?
Hint 1.

The kidney has three basic functions: filtration, reabsorption, and secretion.

The kidney would reabsorb bicarbonate and secrete hydrogen ions.

48

Ingesting too much antacid would cause which of the following acid-base disturbances?
Hint 1.

Sodium bicarbonate is an example of an antacid. Ingestion of bicarbonate would cause which acid-base disturbance?

metabolic alkalosis

49

Vomiting will cause which type of acid-base disturbance?
Hint 1.

Vomiting would cause a loss of HCl acid from the stomach.

metabolic alkalosis

50

Severe anxiety would cause which type of acid-base disturbance? What would be the compensation?
Hint 1.

Anxiety would cause hyperventilation

respiratory alkalosis; kidneys would excrete HCO3

51

Which chemical buffer system is the only important system in the extracellular fluid (ECF) that resists short-term changes in pH?

bicarbonate buffer system

52

In order to buffer a strong acid into a weak acid, which has a less dramatic effect on pH, what chemical should be used as the buffer?

weak base

53

Which of the following does NOT serve as a source of acids in the body?

aerobic breakdown of glucose

54

The most important renal mechanism for regulating acid-base balance of the blood involves __________.

maintaining HCO3- balance.

55

A decrease in blood CO2 levels leads to __________.

an increase in blood pH

56

The primary buffer of the extracellular fluid (ECF) is the __________.

bicarbonate buffer system

57

The most common cause of acid-base imbalance is __________.

respiratory acidosis

58

Which buffer system is the most abundant in the body?

protein

59

Which organs are the ultimate acid-base regulatory organs?

kidneys

60

What is the effect of hyperventilation on pH?

respiratory alkalosis

61

What is the most common cause of acid-base imbalance?

respiratory acidosis

62

Which age group most commonly has fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base balance issues?

infants


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