The loudness of a personʹs voice depends on ________.
The walls of the alveoli are composed of two types of cells, type I and type II. The function of
type II is ________.
After the segmental (tertiary) bronchus, the next smaller branch of the respiratory passageway
is (are) the ________.
The pleurae are vital to the integrity of the lungs because ________.
The statement, ʺin a mixture of gases, the total pressure is the sum of the individual partial
pressures of gases in the mixtureʺ paraphrases ________.
Surfactant helps to prevent the alveoli from collapsing by ________.
For gas exchange to be efficient, the respiratory membrane must be ________.
With the Bohr effect, more oxygen is released because ________.
The most powerful respiratory stimulus for breathing in a healthy person is ________.
In the plasma, the quantity of oxygen in solution is ________.
Which of the following statements is incorrect?
A) During fetal life, lungs are filled with fluid.
B) Respiratory rate is lowest in newborn infants.
C) Descent of the diaphragm results in abdominal breathing.
D) The chest wall becomes more rigid with age.
Which of the following does not influence the increase in ventilation that occurs as exercise is
A) psychic stimuli
B) decrease in lactic acid levels
D) simultaneous cortical motor activation of the skeletal muscles and respiratory center
Which of the following is not a form of lung cancer?
B) Kaposiʹs sarcoma
C) small cell carcinoma
D) squamous cell carcinoma
Which of the following is not an event necessary to supply the body with O2 and dispose of
A) pulmonary ventilation
B) blood pH adjustment
C) internal respiration
D) external respiration
Which of the following is not true of the respiratory tract from the medium bronchi to the
A) Cartilage gradually decreases and disappears at the bronchioles.
B) Resistance to air flow increases due to the increase in cross-sectional diameter.
C) Proportionally, smooth muscle decreases uniformly.
D) Lining of the tubes changes from ciliated columnar to simple squamous epithelium in the
Which of the following determines lung compliance?
A) airway opening
B) flexibility of the thoracic cage
C) muscles of inspiration
D) alveolar surface tension
The lung volume that represents the total volume of exchangeable air is the ________.
Since the lungs are filled with fluid during fetal life, which of the following statements is true
regarding respiratory exchange?
A) Respiratory exchanges are made through the ductus arteriosus.
B) Respiratory exchanges are not necessary.
C) Respiratory exchanges are made through the placenta.
D) Since the lungs develop later in gestation, fetuses do not need a mechanism for
Which of the following is not a stimulus for breathing?
A) rising carbon dioxide levels
B) rising blood pressure
C) arterial Po2 below 60 mm Hg
D) arterial pH resulting from CO2 retention
The amount of air that can be inspired above the tidal volume is called ________.
Which statement about CO2 is incorrect?
A) Its concentration in the blood is decreased by hyperventilation.
B) Its accumulation in the blood is associated with a decrease in pH.
C) More CO2 dissolves in the blood plasma than is carried in the RBCs.
D) CO2 concentrations are greater in venous blood than arterial blood.
Oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged in the lungs and through all cell membranes by
Select the correct statement about the pharynx.
A) The pharyngeal tonsil is located in the laryngopharynx.
B) The auditory tube drains into the nasopharynx.
C) The laryngopharynx blends posteriorly into the nasopharynx.
D) The palatine tonsils are embedded in the lateral walls of the nasopharynx
Which respiratory-associated muscles would contract if you were to blow up a balloon?
A) diaphragm would contract, external intercostals would relax
B) internal intercostals and abdominal muscles would contract
C) external intercostals would contract and diaphragm would relax
D) diaphragm contracts, internal intercostals would relax
Which of the following is not found on the right lobe of the lung?
A) middle lobe
B) cardiac notch
C) horizontal fissure
D) oblique fissure
Impairments of oxygen transport include ________.
Which of the following correctly describes mechanisms of CO2 transport?
A) 20% of CO2 is dissolved directly into the plasma.
B) 7-8% of CO2 is carried in the form of carbaminohemoglobin.
C) The chloride shift mechanism enhances CO2 transport.
D) Carbonic anhydrase is responsible for bonding CO2 to hemoglobin.
Factors that influence the rate and depth of breathing include ________.
Which of the following provide the greatest surface area for gas exchange?
A) alveolar sacs
C) respiratory bronchioles
D) alveolar ducts
The respiratory membrane is a combination of ________.
Inspiratory capacity is ________.
Which center is located in the pons?
A) pontine respirator group (PRG)
D) pacemaker neuron center
The nose serves all the following functions except ________.
A premature baby usually has difficulty breathing. However, the respiratory system is
developed enough for survival by ________.
Which of the following statements is true regarding the respiratory rate of a newborn?
A) The respiratory rate of a newborn is slow.
B) The respiratory rate of a newborn varies between male and female infants.
C) The respiratory rate of a newborn is approximately 30 respirations per minute.
D) The respiratory rate of a newborn is, at its highest rate, approximately 40-80 respirations
Select the correct statement about the neural mechanisms of respiratory control.
A) The pons is thought to be instrumental in the smooth transition from inspiration to
B) The dorsal respiratory group neurons depolarize in a rhythmic way to establish the
pattern of breathing.
C) The pontine respirator group (PRG) continuously stimulates the medulla to provide
D) The ventral respiratory group is contained within the pons.
Which of the following statements is correct?
A) H+ acts directly on central chemoreceptors to decrease the rate and depth of breathing.
B) Low arterial pH is the most powerful stimulator of respiration.
C) Arterial pH does not affect central chemoreceptors directly.
D) H+ has little effect on the blood pH.
The factors responsible for holding the lungs to the thorax wall are ________.
The erythrocyte count increases after a while when an individual goes from a low to a high
altitude because ________.
Most inspired particles such as dust fail to reach the lungs because of the ________.
Which of the following is not possible?
A) Gas flow equals pressure gradient over resistance.
B) Pressure gradient equals gas flow over resistance.
C) Resistance equals pressure gradient over gas flow.
D) The amount of gas flowing in and out of the alveoli is directly proportional to the
difference in pressure or pressure gradient between the external atmosphere and the
Select the correct statement about the physical factors influencing pulmonary ventilation.
A) A decrease in compliance causes an increase in ventilation.
B) A lung that is less elastic will require less muscle action to perform adequate ventilation.
C) As alveolar surface tension increases, additional muscle action will be required.
D) Surfactant helps increase alveolar surface tension.
Select the correct statement about oxygen transport in blood:
A) During normal activity, a molecule of hemoglobin returning to the lungs carries one
molecule of O2
B) During conditions of acidosis, hemoglobin is able to carry oxygen more efficiently
C) Increased BPG levels in the red blood cells enhance oxygen-carrying capacity
D) A 50% oxygen saturation level of blood returning to the lungs might indicate an activity
level higher than normal