1. List and describe the 4 processes of respiration. Name which 2 occur in the lungs.
2. Differentiate between respiratory zone and conducting zone.
3. List the functions of the nose and identify its structures from verbal descriptions.
4. List the functions of the nasal cavity and identify its structures from verbal descriptions.
5. Define pharynx. List its 3 regions.
6. Describe locations and functions of nasopharynx, oropharynx, and laryngopharynx.
Nasopharynx - posterior to nasal cavity, inferior to sphenoid bone & superior to level of soft palate
Function - passageway for air (during swallowing the soft palate & uvula close off the nasopharynx & prevent food from entering nasal cavity)
Oropharynx - lies posterior to the oral cavity & is continuous with it through an archway called the isthmus of the fauces
Function - passageway for food and air
Laryngopharynx - lies directly posterior to the upright epiglottis and extends to the larynx, where the respiratory & digestive tracts diverge
Function - passageway for food and air
7. Describe location and functions of larynx.
8. Explain the function of the larynx and identify its structures from verbal descriptions.
opens into laryngopharynx superiorly & continuous with trachea posteriorly
attached to hyoid bone
9 cartilages connected by membranes & ligaments
all are hyaline cartilage except epiglottis which is elastic cartilage
thyroid cartilage - large, shield-shaped cartilage
arytenoid cartilages - one of 3 pairs of small cartilages forming part of the lateral & posterior walls of the larynx; anchor the vocal cords
9. Explain how the larynx and other structures in the head produce vocal sounds.
-true vocal cords vibrate to produce sound as air rushes up from lung
-Speech - involves the intermittent release of expired air and opening & closing glottis
-Intrinsic laryngeal muscles change length of vocal cords & size of glottis
-pitch - frequency of vibration of vocal cords; determined by vocal cords’ length & tension
-loudness - depends upon force at which the air passes across vocal cords; ↑ force = ↑ sound
-Pharynx - acts as a resonating chamber to amplify & enhance sound quality
-Sound is “shaped” into language
cooperation between pharynx, tongue, soft palate, & lips
10. Describe the structure and function of trachea. List its layers and describe composition of each.
Trachea (windpipe) - flexible cartilage-reinforced tube extending from the larynx to the bronchi
conducts air from larynx to bronchi
warms air, cleanses it of most impurities, & saturates it with water vapor
mucosa - innermost layer(goblet cells & ciliated epithelium)
submucosa - middle layer(connective tissue
contains seromucous glands that produce mucus
supported by 16 to 20 C-shaped rings of hyaline cartilage)
adventitia - outermost layer(connective tissue)
11. Explain the branching and naming of bronchi and bronchioles.
12. Describe the structural changes that occur as conducting tubes become smaller.
-Bronchi - trachea divides to form the right & left main (primary) bronchi which enter the medial depression of each lung
-Main (primary) bronchi - subdivide into lobar (secondary) bronchi
there are 3 lobar bronchi on the right & 2 on the left;each supplies a lung lobe
-Lobar (secondary) bronchi - subdivide into segmental (tertiary) bronchi
-Bronchi continue to subdivide into smaller & smaller bronchi (fourth-order bronchi, fifth-order…)
-Bronchioles - < 1mm in diameter
-Terminal bronchioles -smallest bronchioles
13. Define respiratory bronchiole, alveolar duct, alveolar sac, and alveoli.
14. Order structures in the respiratory tract from trachea to alveoli.
15. Describe the structure of the respiratory membrane.
16. Explain functions of the different types of alveolar cells and the alveolar pores.
17. Identify the gross structures of the lungs from verbal descriptions.
-root - site of vascular & bronchial attachments to mediastinum
-hilum - indentation that contains blood vessels, bronchi, lymph vessels, & nerves
-costal surface - anterior, lateral, and posterior lung surfaces; in close contact with ribs
-apex - narrow superior tip
-base - inferior surface that rests on diaphragm
-cardiac notch - cavity in left lung that accommodates heart
-left lung - separated into superior and inferior lobes by oblique fissure; smaller lung
-right lung - separated into superior, middle, & inferior lobes by oblique and horizontal fissures
-bronchopulmonary segments - each lung contains 8-10, one for each tertiary (segmental) bronchus
18. Explain the general flow of blood and function of the bronchial circulation.
Blood supply to lungs
bronchial arteries - provide systemic blood to lung tissue
arise from aorta, enter lungs at hilum, and supply all lung tissue except alveoli; not involved in air exchange
bronchial veins - carry some blood but also anastomose with pulmonary veins which carry most of venous blood back to heart
19. Describe pleura, parietal pleura, visceral pleura, pleural cavity, and pleural fluid.
Pleura - thin, double-layered serosa
parietal pleura - covers thoracic wall & superior face of diaphragm; continues around heart & between lungs
visceral pleura - covers external lung surface
pleural cavity - slit-like cavity between the parietal & visceral pleurae; contains pleural fluid secreted by pleurae
Pleural fluid - lubricating fluid secreted by pleurae
20. List functions of the pleural fluid.
21. Define inspiration and expiration.
22. Define atmospheric pressure, intrapulmonary pressure, intrapleural pressure, and transpulmonary pressure.
intrapulmonary pressure (Ppul) - pressure in the alveoli
intrapleural pressure (Pip) - pressure in the pleural cavity
Transpulmonary pressure - the difference between intrapulmonary pressure & intrapleural pressure
atmospheric pressure (Patm) - the pressure exerted by the air (gases) surrounding the body
23. Explain Boyle’s law and the relationship between gas pressure and volume.
-volume changes lead to pressure changes
-pressure changes lead to flow of gases to equalize pressure
-gases always fill their container
Boyle’s law - relationship between pressure & volume
P1V1 = P2V2
-at constant temperature, the pressure of a gas varies inversely with its volume
-↑ volume → ↓ pressure (gas molecules further apart)
-↓ volume → ↑ pressure (molecules closer)
24. Explain how intrapulmonary pressure varies with inspiration and expiration. Explain how it reaches equilibrium with atmospheric pressure.
25. Explain the importance of intrapleural pressure remaining negative. Explain how negative pressure is maintained.
Pip must be negative relative to Ppul to maintain pressure gradient; without it air will not move into the lungs
Pip should always be about 4 mm Hg less than Ppul
amount of pleural fluid in pleural cavity must be minimal to maintain negative Pip
lymphatics continuously drain pleural fluid out of pleural cavity
26. Contrast forces that pull lungs away from the thoracic wall with forces that keep the lungs from collapsing.
Forces that pull the lungs (visceral pleura) away from the thoracic wall (parietal pleura)
lung recoil - lung elasticity causes lungs to assume the smallest possible size
-surface tension of alveolar fluid - fluid molecules attract each other, drawing alveoli to smallest possible size
Opposing force that keeps lungs from collapsing
-elasticity of chest wall - pulls thorax outward & expands lungs
-Neither force totally wins but negative pressure is maintained
27. Explain what occurs when transpulmonary pressure is high, normal, or low.
normally, Ppul - Pip = 4 mm Hg
excess pleural fluid causes increase Pip with decrease transpulmonary pressure
amount of transpulmonary pressure determines lung size;increase transpulmonary pressure = increase lung size
any condition that equalizes Pip with Ppul or Patm causes immediate lung collapse
pneumothorax - presence of air in the pleural cavity
30. Define forced inspiration and name some of the muscles involved.
Forced inspiration - accessory muscles aid inspiration during vigorous activity and in some chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases; increases thoracic volume
several muscles including the scalenes, sternocleidomastoid, & pectoralis minor raise the ribs more than quiet inspiration
erector spinae muscles extend the back
32. Define forced expiration and name some of the muscles involved.
33. Summarize pressure and volume changes during inspiration and expiration: intrapulmonary pressure, intrapleural pressure, and volume of breath.
34. Define airway resistance, surface tension, surfactant, and lung compliance.
Airway resistance - the major nonelastic source of resistance to gas flow is friction encountered in the respiratory passageway
Surface tension - liquid molecules are more attracted to each other than to gas molecules at a gas-liquid boundary
Surfactant - decreases the cohesiveness of water molecules which reduces surface tension
Lung compliance - degree of “stretchiness”; a measure of the change in lung volume that occurs with a given change in the transpulmonary pressure
35. Define respiratory volumes and respiratory capacities.
36. Define tidal volume, inspiratory reserve volume, expiratory reserve volume, and residual volume. Relate each to a spirographic tracing.
Tidal volume (TV) - amount of air inhaled or exhaled with each breath under resting conditions (500ml)
Inspiratory reserve volume (IRV) - amount of air that can be forcibly inhaled after a normal tidal volume inspiration (2100-3200ml)
Expiratory reserve volume (ERV) - amount of air that can be forcibly exhaled after a normal tidal volume expiration (1,000-1,2000ml)
37. Define inspiratory capacity, functional residual capacity, vital capacity, and total lung capacity. Know equations for each.
Inspiratory capacity (IC) - maximum amount of air that can be inhaled after a normal tidal volume expiration
IC = TV + IRV
Functional residual capacity (FRC) - amount of air remaining in lungs after a normal tidal volume expiration
FRC = ERV + RV
Vital capacity (VC) - maximum amount of air that can be expired after a maximum inspiratory effort
VC = IRV + TV + ERV
Total lung capacity (TLC) - sum of all respiratory volumes; total air volume after maximal inspiration
TLC = IRV + TV + ERV + RV
38. Define pulmonary function tests and spirometry. Explain clinical uses for these tests.
Pulmonary Function Tests (PFT) - group of tests that evaluate how well lungs work
-measure how well lungs take in and release air & how well they move gases like O2 into the body’s circulation
-various lung volumes & capacities are often abnormal in people with pulmonary disorders
Spirometry - most common pulmonary function test
-breath into a mouthpiece connected to a small electronic measuring device called a spirometer
-measures how much air is inhaled &exhaled and how fast a patient can exhale
-evaluates losses in respiratory function & follows course of certain diseases
39. List types of respiratory controls. Describe the theoretical mechanism for respiratory rhythm.
Respiratory control involves higher brain centers, chemoreceptors, and other reflexes
-ventral respiratory group - in medulla; contains inspiratory neurons that fire to induce inspiration & inhibitory neurons that fire to stop inspiration (induces expiration); sets up respiratory rhythm
-other neural centers - influence & modify the activity of the medullary neurons
-respiratory rhythm - still cannot be fully explained
-most important are changing levels of CO2, O2, and H+
-rising CO2 levels influence respiration more than other chemicals