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MasteringAandP: The Digestive System Chapter 23 P Besaw

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Anatomy and Physiology 2 chapter 23 Digestive system

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1

The __________ is the serous membrane that lines the abdominal body wall.

parietal peritoneum

2

Which major process involves the elimination of indigestible substances from the body via the anus?

defecation

3

Where does the process of segmentation occur?

small intestine

4

How would you classify chewing food?

mechanical breakdown

5

The major means of propelling food through the digestive tract is __________.

peristalsis

6

Which layer of the alimentary canal is constructed from either stratified squamous or simple columnar epithelium?

mucosa

7

Which layer of the alimentary canal is responsible for segmentation and peristalsis?

muscularis externa

8

Which layer of the alimentary canal contains the nerve supply of the enteric neurons that regulate digestive system activity?

submucosa

9

The innermost tissue layer of the alimentary canal is the __________.

mucosa

10

The nervous system does not regulate digestive activity.

False

11

In a patient suffering from untreated infection-induced peritonitis, an infection in the visceral peritoneum immediately ______.

spreads directly to the parietal peritoneum

12

Which histological layer of the digestive tract is composed primarily of epithelial tissue?

mucosa

13

Which of the following is considered to be an accessory organ of the digestive system?

gallbladder

14

In cystic fibrosis, blockage of the pancreatic duct by thick mucus will prevent the flow of pancreatic juice into the duodenum; this will directly cause ______.

atrophy of the pancreatic acini

15

When a baby ingests breast milk, the milk's IgA antibodies may be absorbed into the baby's bloodstream because ______.

many pepsinogen molecules remain unchanged

16

Which part of the digestive system is the major location for absorption of the end products of digestion?

small intestine

17

How are fats absorbed into the blood?

in the form of chylomicrons

18

The __________ circulation includes all of the major abdominal arteries that serve the digestive organs.

peritoneal

19

The capillaries that nourish the epithelium and absorb digested nutrients lie in the ________.

lamina propria

20

Which of the following are mismatched?

protease: lipid digestion

21

Proteins are digested into __________.

amino acids

22

One of the direct consequences of lactose intolerance is ______.

increased osmotic pressure of the large intestine contents

23

Which enzymes are responsible for the final chemical breakdown of carbohydrates, proteins, and nucleic acids?

brush border enzymes

24

Which of the following propels food residue over large areas of the colon three to four times a day?

mass movement

25

What is the function of the bacterial flora that inhabit the large intestine?

Bacterial flora synthesize B-complex vitamins and some of the vitamin K needed by the liver.

26

Which of the following is the primary function of the large intestine?

defecation

27

The major function of the large intestine is to __________.

absorb water

28

Bacteria that reside in the large intestine make vitamin K.

True

29

An effective way to medically treat diarrhea would be to use a drug that ______.

inhibits the activity of the myenteric nerve plexus

30

Which of the following processes occurs only in the large intestine?

defecation

31

Which vitamins are made by the bacteria in the large intestine?

B complex and K vitamins

32

Which of the following is NOT inhibited by the intestino-intestinal reflex?

muscularis mucosae

33

The appendix contains masses of lymphoid tissue and therefore has leukocytes capable of attacking bacteria present in the appendix. But during appendicitis, bacteria trapped in the lumen of the appendix are not effectively attacked because ______.

there is an inadequate blood supply to the appendix wall

34

The formation of diverticula involves, most significantly, the ______.

weakening of the colon's submucosa

35

What is the function of the soft palate?

The soft palate rises reflexively to close off the nasopharynx when swallowing occurs.

36

Which of the following is NOT a function of saliva?

Saliva contains enzymes that begin the chemical breakdown of proteins.

37

Which of the following inhibits salivation?

sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system

38

Which teeth are best suited for cutting or nipping off pieces of food in the permanent dentition?

incisors

39

Saliva does NOT __________.

aid in the chemical digestion of proteins

40

A person with ankyloglossia would likely have difficulty pronouncing the word ______.

"yes"
"no"
"biology"
All of the listed responses are correct.

41

A mumps viral infection of the two parotid glands may ______.

spread to the other salivary glands

42

Hyposalivation can be treated with a drug that ______.

stimulates muscarinic receptors in salivary gland serous cells

43

Impacted wisdom teeth is a problem that is never observed in children because ______.

they lack third molar teeth

44

After root canal therapy, a tooth may become infected again due to poor dental hygiene. The patient might not seek treatment for this newly infected tooth because ______.

the tooth lacks a nerve that would make the patient perceive pain

45

The __________ guards the entry of food into the stomach.

cardiac sphincter

46

Gastric juice does not typically cause a burning sensation within the stomach. But reflux of this gastric juice into the esophagus can cause a burning sensation. One reason why this occurs is that the esophagus ______.

secretes mucus that is not identical to stomach mucus

47

Which of the following components of saliva helps convert food-derived nitrates into nitric oxide (NO)?

bacteria present on the back of the tongue

48

Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of the stomach?

The stomach releases enzymes to digest carbohydrates.

49

Which digestive process normally occurs only in the mouth?

ingestion

50

The pharyngeal-esophageal phase of swallowing is involuntary and is controlled by the swallowing center in the thalamus and lower pons.

False

51

Which mesentery helps tether the stomach to the liver?

lesser omentum

52

The mucosa collapses inward when the stomach is empty, forming large folds known as __________.

rugae

53

In the __________ phase of gastric secretion, chyme is moved into the duodenum.

intestinal

54

The __________ is the last segment of the small intestine.

ileum

55

Blood draining from the stomach is more alkaline (basic) than blood that serves the stomach.

True

56

In a patient suffering from a gastric ulcer caused by Helicobacter pylori, the cells most likely to have been damaged first are the ______.

mucous cells

57

Before and during vomiting, the emetic center initiates motor responses that involve ______.

sympathetic neurons
parasympathetic neurons
the somatic nervous system
All of the listed responses are correct.

58

What role of the stomach is essential to life?

production of intrinsic factor

59

What structural modification of the small intestine slows the movement of chyme through the lumen?

circular folds

60

Which cell in the small intestine's mucosa is a mucus-secreting cell?

goblet cell

61

Which cells of the small intestine secrete enterogastrones, such as secretin and cholecystokinin?

enteroendocrine cells

62

Which duct carries bile out of bile ducts in the liver?

common hepatic duct

63

Which component of bile emulsifies fats?

bile salts

64

Which vessel delivers nutrient-rich blood to the liver from the digestive tract?

hepatic portal vein

65

Which chemical activates the transformation of trypsinogen to trypsin?

enteropeptidase

66

What is a major function of pancreatic juice?

neutralizing chyme entering the small intestine from the stomach

67

What triggers the release of secretin from the small intestine?

presence of acidic, fatty chyme in the small intestine

68

Which of the following is NOT a structural modification of the small intestine to increase surface area?

rugae

69

Bile is produced by the __________.

liver

70

The pancreas secretes __________.

procarboxypeptidase

71

Most digestion and absorption of nutrients occur in the __________.

small intestine

72

The liver is able to regenerate even after 50% of its original mass is lost.

True

73

Cirrhosis can cause ______.

a bleeding disorder

74

An obstruction by a gallstone is least likely to occur in the ______.

common hepatic duct

75

Which organ of the digestive tract is the body's major digestive organ?

small intestine

76

What is the major digestive function of the pancreas?

production of digestive enzymes


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