Exercise 38: Anatomy of the Digestive System

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1

THE GENERAL ANATOMICAL FEATURES OF THE ALIMENTARY CANAL GIVEN THE LAYER, NAME THE SUBDIVISIONS OF THE LAYER, AND MAJOR FUNCTIONS.

WALL LAYER: MUCOSA

SUBDIVISON OF THE LAYER: SURFACE EPITHELIUM, LAMINA PROPRIA, MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE
MAJOR FUNCTIONS: SECRETION, ABSORPTION, AND PROTECTION

2

THE GENERAL ANATOMICAL FEATURES OF THE ALIMENTARY CANAL GIVEN THE LAYER, NAME THE SUBDIVISIONS OF THE LAYER, AND MAJOR FUNCTIONS.

WALL LAYER: SUBMUCOSA

SUBDIVISON OF THE LAYER: NONE
MAJOR FUNCTIONS: NUTRITION AND PROTECTION

3

THE GENERAL ANATOMICAL FEATURES OF THE ALIMENTARY CANAL GIVEN THE LAYER, NAME THE SUBDIVISIONS OF THE LAYER, AND MAJOR FUNCTIONS.

WALL LAYER: MUSCULARIS EXTERNA

SUBDIVISON OF THE LAYER: SMOOTH MUSCLE LAYERS ARE= INNER LAYER(CIRCULARLY) AND OUTER LAYER(LONGITUDINALLY)
MAJOR FUNCTIONS: REGULATOR OF GI MOTILITY

4

THE GENERAL ANATOMICAL FEATURES OF THE ALIMENTARY CANAL GIVEN THE LAYER, NAME THE SUBDIVISIONS OF THE LAYER, AND MAJOR FUNCTIONS.

WALL LAYER: SEROSA OR ADVENTITIA

SUBDIVISON OF THE LAYER: VISCERAL PERITONEUM, MESOTHELIUM, ADVENTITIA (EPITHELIUM AND CONNECTIVE TISSUES)
MAJOR FUNCTIONS: ANCHORS, PROTECTS, AND REDUCES FRICTION

5

THE TUBELIKE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM CANAL THAT EXTENDS FROM THE MOUTH TO THE ANUS IS KNOWN AS THE __1__ CANAL OR THE __2__ TRACT.

1. ALIMENTARY
2. DIGESTIVE (GI)

6

HOW IS THE MUSCULARIS EXTERNA OF THE STOMACH MODIFIED?

BESIDES CIRCULAR AND LONGITUDINAL LAYERS OF SMOOTH MUSCLES, IT HAS INNERMOST LAYER THAT RUNS OBLIQUELY.

7

HOW DOES THIS MODIFICATION RELATE TO THE FUNCTION OF THE STOMACH?

LETS STOMACH MIX, CHURN AND MOVE FOOD ALONG TRACT (CIRCULAR/LONGITUDINAL) BUT ALSO TO PUMMEL FOOD, BREAK DOWN INTO SMALLER PIECES AND RAM FOOD TO SMALL INTESTINE (OBLIQUE).

8

WHAT TRANSITION IN EPITHELIAL TYPE EXISTS AT THE GASTROESOPHAGEAL JUNCTION?

SQUAMOUS CELLS IN THE ESOPHAGUS TO COLUMNAR CELL IN THE GASTRIC MUCOSA.

9

HOW DO THE EPITHELIA OF THESE TWO ORGANS RELATE TO THEIR SPECIFIC FUNCTIONS?

SIMPLE COLUMNAR (GASTRIC) FOR ABSORPTION AND STRATIFIED SQUAMOUS (ESOPHAGUS) FOR PROTECTION.

10

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11

DIFFERENTIATE BETWEEN THE COLON AND THE LARGE INTESTINE.

LARGE INTESTINE EXTENDS FROM ILEOCECAL VALVE TO ANUS, BUT COLON IS PART OF THE LARGE INTESTINE AND DIVIDED INTO: ASCENDING, DESCENDING AND SIGMOID COLON.

12

STRUCTURES THAT SUSPEND THE SMALL INTESTINE FROM THE POSTERIOR BODY WALL

MESENTERY

13

FINGERLIKE EXTENSIONS OF THE INTESTINAL MUCOSA THAT INCREASE THE SURFACE AREA FOR ABSORPTION

VILLI

14

LARGE COLLECTIONS OF LYMPHOID TISSUE FOUND IN THE SUBMUCOSA OF THE SMALL INTESTINE

PEYER'S PATCHES

15

DEEP FOLDS OF THE MUCOSA AND SUBMUCOSA THAT EXTEND COMPLETELY OR PARTIALLY AROUND THE CIRCUMFERENCE OF THE SMALL INTESTINE

CIRCULAR FOLDS

16

REGIONS THAT BREAK DOWN FOODSTUFFS MECHANICALLY

ORAL CAVITY, STOMACH

17

MOBILE ORGAN THAT MANIPULATES FOOD IN THE MOUTH AND INITIATES SWALLOWING

TONGUE

18

CONDUIT FOR BOTH AIR AND FOOD

PHARYNX

19

THREE STRUCTURES CONTINUOUS WITH AND REPRESENTING MODIFICATIONS OF THE PERITONEUM

GREATER OMENTUM, MESENTERY, LESSER OMENTUM

20

THE "GULLET"; NO DIGESTIVE/ABSORPTION FUNCTION

ESOPHAGUS

21

FOLDS OF THE GASTRIC MUCOSA

RUGAE

22

SACCULATIONS OF THE LARGE INTESTINE

HAUSTRA

23

PROJECTIONS OF THE PLASMA MEMBRANE OF A MUCOSAL EPITHELIAL CELL

MICROVILLI

24

VALVE AT THE JUNCTION OF THE SMALL AND LARGE INTESTINE

ILEOCECAL VALVE

25

PRIMARY REGION OF FOOD AND WATER ABSORPTION

SMALL INTESTINE

26

MEMBRANE SECURING THE TONGUE TO THE FLOOR OF THE MOUTH

FRENULUM

27

ABSORBS WATER AND FORMS FECES

LARGE INTESTINE

28

AREA BETWEEN THE TEETH AND LIPS/CHEEKS

VESTIBULE

29

WORMLIKE SAC THAT OUTPOCKETS FROM THE CECUM

APPENDIX

30

INITIATES PROTEIN DIGESTION

STOMACH

31

STRUCTURES ATTACHED TO THE LESSER CURVATURE OF THE STOMACH

LESSER OMENTUM

32

ORGAN DISTAL TO THE STOMACH

SMALL INTESTINE

33

VALVE CONTROLLING FOOD MOVEMENT FROM THE STOMACH INTO THE DUODENUM

PYLORIC VALVE

34

POSTEROSUPERIOR BOUNDARY OF THE ORAL CAVITY

SOFT PALATE

35

location OF THE HEPATOPANCREATIC SPHINCTER THROUGH WHICH PANCREATIC SECRETIONS AND BILE PASS

SMALL INTESTINE

36

SEROUS LINING OF THE ABDOMINAL CAVITY WALL

PARIETAL PERITONEUM

37

PRINCIPAL SITE FOR THE SYNTHESIS OF VITAMIN K BY MICROORGANISMS

LARGE INTESTINE

38

REGION CONTAINING TWO SPHINCTERS THROUGH WHICH FECES ARE EXPELLED FROM THE BODY

ANUS

39

BONE-SUPPORTED ANTEROSUPERIOR BOUNDARY OF THE ORAL CAVITY

HARD PALATE

40

VISIBLE PORTION OF THE TOOTH IN SITU

CLINICAL CROWN

41

MATERIAL COVERING THE TOOTH ROOT

CEMENTUM

42

HARDEST SUBSTANCE IN THE BODY

ENAMEL

43

ATTACHES THE TOOTH TO BONE AND SURROUNDING ALVEOLAR STRUCTURES

PERIODONTAL LIGAMENT

44

PORTION OF THE TOOTH EMBEDDED IN BONE

ROOT

45

FORMS THE MAJOR PORTION OF TOOTH STRUCTURE, SIMILAR TO BONE

DENTIN

46

PRODUCES THE DENTIN

ODONTOBLAST

47

SITE OF BLOOD VESSELS, NERVES, AND LYMPHATICS

PULP

48

ENTIRE PORTION OF THE TOOTH COVERED WITH ENAMEL

ANATOMICAL CROWN

49

IN THE HUMAN, THE NUMBER OF DECIDUOUS TEETH IS __1__; THE NUMBER OF PERMANENT TEETH IS __2__.

1. 20
2. 32

50

THE DENTAL FORMULA FOR PERMANENT TEETH IS

2,1,2,3
------- x 2
2,1,2,3

EXPLAIN WHAT THIS MEANS.

2 INCISORS, 1 CANINE, 2 PREMOLARS AND 3 MOLARS ON UPPER TEATH, 2 INCISORS, 1 CANINE, 2 PREMOLARS AND 3 MOLARS ON LOWER TEETH. MULTIPLIED BY 2.

51

WHAT IS THE DENTAL FORMULA FOR THE DECIDUOUS TEETH?

2,1,0,2
------- x 2 = 20
2,1,0,2

52

WHICH TEETH ARE THE "WISDOM TEETH"?

THE THIRD MOLARS

53

PRODUCE(S) MUCUS; FOUND IN THE SUBMUCOSA OF THE SMALL INTESTINE

DUODENAL GLANDS

54

PRODUCE(S) A PRODUCT CONTAINING AMYLASE THAT BEGINS STARCH BREAKDOWN IN THE MOUTH

SALIVARY GLANDS

55

PRODUCE(S) A WHOLE SPECTRUM OF ENZYMES AND AN ALKALINE FLUID THAT IS SECRETED INTO THE DUODENUM

PANCREAS

56

PRODUCE(S) BILE THAT IT SECRETES INTO THE DUODENUM VIA THE BILE DUCT

LIVER

57

PRODUCE(S) HCI AND PEPSINOGEN

GASTRIC GLANDS

58

FOUND IN THE MUCOSA OF THE SMALL INTESTINE; PRODUCE(S) INTESTINAL JUICE

INTESTINAL CRYPTS

59

WHICH OF THE SALIVARY GLANDS PRODUCES A SECRETION THAT IS MAINLY SEROUS?

PAROTID GLAND

60

WHAT IS THE ROLE OF THE GALLBLADDER?

STORES BILE

61

NAME THREE STRUCTURES ALWAYS FOUND IN THE PORTAL TRIAD REGIONS OF THE LIVER.

HEPATIC ARTERY, HEPATIC PORTAL VEIN, AND BILE DUCT.

62

WHERE WOULD YOU EXPECT TO FIND THE KUPFFER CELLS OF THE LIVER? WHAT IS THEIR FUNCTION?

SINUSOID WALLS.
REMOVE DEBRIS SUCH AS BACTERIA OR WORNOUT BLOOD CELLS FROM THE BLOOD.

63

WHY IS THE LIVER SO DARK RED IN THE LIVING ANIMAL?

BECAUSE IT HAD A HIGH AMOUNT OF BLOOD THAT CIRCULATES THROUGH THE LIVER.

64

THE PANCREAS HAS TWO MAJOR POPULATIONS OF SECRETORY CELLS - THOSE IN THE ISLETS AND THE ACINAR CELLS, WHICH POPULATIONS SERVES THE DIGESTIVE PROCESS?

ACINAR CELLS


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