Which branch of the Autonomic Nervous System innervates blood vessels? Which layers of the blood vessel wall do these nerves innervates? What are effectors (cells that carry out the response)?
When vascular smooth muscle contracts, what happens to the diameter of the blood vessel? What is this called?
Name the type of artery that matches each description:
(a)major role in dampening the pulsatile pressure of heart contractions
(b)vasodilation or constriction to determine blood flow to individual capillary beds
(c)have the thickest tunica media relative to their lumen size
(a) What is the function of valves in veins?
(b) What forms the valves?
In the systemic circuit, which contains more blood-arteries or veins- or is it the same?
List 3 factors that determine resistance in a vessel?
Which of these factors is physiologically most important?
blood viscosity, vessel length, and vessel diameter, Vessel diameter is most important
Suppose vasoconstriction decreases the diameter of a vessel to one-third its size. What happens to the rate of flow through that vessel?
Calculate the expected size of the change.
Describe the baroreceptor reflex changes that occur to maintain blood pressure when you rise from a lying-down to a standing position.
When you stand up, the baroreceptors will sense a drop in your blood pressure. They quickly take action to make sure that blood continues to flow to the brain, kidneys, and other important organs. The baroreceptors cause the heart to beat faster and harder. They also cause the small arteries (arterioles) and veins to narrow.
The kidneys play an important role in maintaining MAP by influencing which variable?
Explain how renal artery obstruction could cause secondary hypertension.
Suppose you are in a bicycle race.
What happens to the smooth muscle in the arterioles supplying your leg muscles?
What is the key mechanism in this case?
If many arterioles in your body dilated at once, you would expect MAP to plummet. What prevents MAP from decreasing during your bicycle race?
Suppose OPif rises dramatically - say because of a serious bacterial infection in the surrounding tissue.
(a) Predict how fluid flow will change in this situation.
(b) Now calculate the NFP at the venous end of the capillary in figure 19.17 if OPif increases to 10mm Hg.
(c) in which direction does fluid flow at the venous end of the capillary now – in or out?
a) an increase in interstial fluid osmotic pressure would pull more fluid from the capillaries causing edema
b) an in crease in osmotic pressure to 10mg would increase the outward pressure on both, arterial and venous (1mm Hg) ends
c) Fluid would flow out of the venous end of the capillary rather than in.
Your neighbor, Bob, calls you because he thinks he is having an allergic reaction to a medication. You find Bob on the verge of losing consciencness and having trouble breathing. When paramedics arrive, they note his blood pressure is 63/38 and he has a rapid, theady pulse.
Explain Bob’s low blood pressure and rapid heart rate.
Bob is suffering from anaphylactic shock due to an allergic reaction to his medication. His blood pressure is low because of widespread vasodilation triggered by the massive release of histamine. His rapid heart rate is a result of the baroreceptor reflex triggered by his low blood pressure. This activates his sympathetic nervous system, increasing heart rate, in an attempt to raise his blood pressure.
Which paired artery supplies most of the tissues of the head except for the brain and orbits?
Name the arterial anastomosis at the base of the cerebrum?
Name the four unpaired arteries that emerge from the abdominal aorta.
You are assessing the circulation in the leg of a diabetic patient at the clinic. Name the artery you palpitate in each of these three locations.
In what important way does the area drained by the vertebral veins differ from the area served by the vertebral arteries?
Which veins drain the dural venous sinuses and where do these veins terminate?
What is a portal system?
What is the function of the hepatic portal system?
List three differences between systemic arteries and veins with respect to their general pathways and courses?
Name three fetal shunts that are occludes shortly after birth. Which structures does each shunt bypass?