Exercise 32: Anatomy of Blood Vessels

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CROSS-SECTIONAL VIEWS OF AN ARTERY AND OF A VEIN ARE SHOWN HERE. IDENTIFY EACH; ON THE LINES TO THE SIDES, NOTE THE STRUCTURAL DETAILS THAT ENABLED YOU TO MAKE THESE IDENTIFICATIONS:

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STRUCTURAL DETAILS:
ARTERY: ROUND AND THICK
VEIN: THIN AND SQUIGGLY

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CHARACTERISTICS OF TUNICA INTIMA

INNERMOST TUNIC, THIN TUNIC OF CAPILLARIES

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CHARACTERISTICS OF TUNICA MEDIA

ESPECIALLY THICK IN ELASTIC ARTERIES, CONTAINS SMOOTH MUSCLE AND ELASTIN

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CHARACTERISTICS OF TUNICA EXTERNA

MOST SUPERFICIAL TUNIC, HAS A SMOOTH SURFACE TO DECREASE RESISTANCE TO BLOOD FLOW

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WHY ARE VALVES PRESENT IN VEINS BUT NOT IN ARTERIES?

Veins need valves to create pressure to pump the blood to the heart. Blood flows away from the heart and, therefore, the pressure is not required. Helps against gravity.

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NAME TWO EVENTS OCCURING WITHIN THE BODY THAT AID IN VENOUS RETURN.

1. Respiratory "Pump". Pressure changes that occur in the thorax during breathing.
2. Muscular "Pump". Contraction and Relaxation of skeletal muscles surrounding the veins

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WHY ARE THE WALLS OF ARTERIES PROPERTIONATELY THICKER THAN THOSE OF THE CORRESPONDING VEINS?

Because the blood is pumped directly into arteries so there is more pressure on the arteries

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THE ARTERIAL SYSTEM HAS ONE OF THESE; THE VENOUS SYSTEM HAS TWO

BRACHIOCEPHALIC

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THESE ARTERIES SUPPLY THE MYOCARDIUM

CORONARY

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TWO PAIRED ARTERIES SERVING THE BRAIN

EXTERNAL CAROTID, INTERNAL CAROTID

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LONGEST VEIN IN THE LOWER LIMB

GREAT SAPHENOUS

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ARTERY ON THE DORSUM OF THE FOOT CHECKED AFTER LEG SURGERY

DORSALIS PEDIS

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SERVES THE POSTERIOR THIGH

FEMORAL

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SUPPLIES THE DIAPHRAGM

PHRENIC

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FORMED BY THE UNION OF THE RADIAL AND ULNAR VEINS

BRACHIAL

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TWO SUPERFICIAL VEINS OF THE ARM

BASILIC, CEPHALIC

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ARTERY SERVING THE KIDNEY

RENAL

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VEINS DRAINING THE LIVER

HEPATIC

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ARTERY THAT SUPPLIES THE DISTAL HALF OF THE LARGE INTESTINE

INFERIOR MESENTERIC

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DRAINS THE PELVIC ORGANS

INTERNAL ILIAC

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WHAT THE EXTERNAL ILIAC ARTERY BECOMES ON ENTRY INTO THE THIGH

DEEP ARTERY OF THE THIGH, FEMORAL

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MAJOR ARTERY SERVING THE ARM

SUBCLAVIAN

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SUPPLIES MOST OF THE SMALL INTESTINE

SUPERIOR MESENTERIC

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JOIN TO FORM THE INFERIOR VENA CAVA

COMMON ILIAC

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AN ARTERIAL TRUNK THAT HAS THREE MAJOR BRANCHES, WHICH RUN TO THE LIVER, SPLEEN, AND STOMACH

CELIAC TRUNK

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MAJOR ARTERY SERVING THE TISSUES EXTERNAL TO THE SKULL

COMMON CAROTID

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THREE VEINS SERVING THE LEG

ANTERIOR TIBIAL, FIBULAR, POSTERIOR TIBIAL

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ARTERY GENERALLY USED TO TAKE THE PULSE AT THE WRIST

RADIAL

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WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF THE CEREBRAL ARTERIAL CIRCLE (CIRCLE OF WILLIS)?

PROVIDES ALTERNATE PATHWAYS FOR BLOOD TO REACH BRAIN TISSUE IN THE CASE OF IMPAIRED BLOOD FLOW IN THIS SYSTEM.

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THE ANTERIOR AND MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERIES ARISE FROM THE __1__ ARTERY. THEY SERVE THE __2__ OF THE BRAIN.

1. INTERNAL CAROTID
2 CEREBRUM

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TRACE THE PATHWAY OF A DROP OF BLOOD FROM THE AORTA TO THE LEFT OCCIPITAL LOBE OF THE BRAIN, NOTING ALL STRUCTURES THROUGH WHICH IT FLOWS?

subclavian artery, vertebral artery, basilar artery, posterior cerebral artery

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LABEL ARTERIES

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LABEL ARTERIES

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LABEL ARTERIES

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LABEL ARTERIES

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LABEL ARTERIES

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LABEL ARTERIES

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LABEL ARTERIES

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LABEL ARTERIES

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TRACE THE PATHWAY OF A CARBON DIOXIDE GAS MOLECULE IN THE BLOOD FROM THE INFERIOR VENA CAVA UNTIL IT LEAVES THE BLOODSTREAM. NAME ALL STRUCTURES (VESSELS, HEART CHAMBERS, AND OTHERS) PASSED THROUGH EN ROUTE.

RIGHT ATRIUM -> RIGHT VENTRICLE -> PULMONARY TRUNK -> RIGHT OR LEFT PULMONARY ARTERY -> LOBAR ARTERY -> PULMONARY CAPILLARY BEDS IN LUNGS -> AIR SACS OF LUNGS.


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