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Porifera

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created 5 years ago by scast8
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updated 5 years ago by scast8

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1

metazoa

all multicellular animals

2

What are the modern descendants of metazoa?

protozoa, plants, animals, and fungi

3

What grade of organization does parazoa have?

-cellular

-no tissue grade

-cells are specialized for specific tasks

4

What are the different forms of sponges?

red boring sponge, encrusting sponge,finger sponge, variable sponge, and tube sponge

5

What does phylum porifera consume?

detritus, plankton, and bacteria

6

What type of digestion does Phylum Porifera perform?

intracellular

7

What are contractile vacuoles?

Adjust the pressure so too much water doesn't pump into the sponge

8

Do porifera have a nervous system?

no

9

Do porifera have respiratory or excretory system diffusion?

no

10

What are porifera known for?

excellent filtering abilities

11

Can sponges move?

yes- some crawl, most don't

12

What are defense mechanisms of porifera?

spicules, production of toxic chemicals, bright colors

13

What is the pharmaceutical potential of porifera?

anti-viral drugs, alternative antibiotics

14

What type of symmetry do sponges have?

assymetrical, some radial

15

What does the body look like inside?

system of canals

16

What cells are in the matrix?

-mesohyl, spicules (rigid skeleton), fibers (flexible)

17

Ostia

incurrrent canal (normally lots of them)

18

Osculum

opening of the spongocoel to the surface

19

Spongocoel

main internal cavity

20

Choanocytes

feeding (flagellated)

21

What do pinacocytes form?

pinacoderm (epithelial like)

22

What shape are pinacocyets?

flat (epithelial like)

23

myoctyes

pinacocytes that help regulate the flow of water

24

Can pinacocytes contract?

Somewhat

25
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What is this?

Pinacoderm

26

choanocytes

flagellated to create current

27

collar

consists of adjacent microvilli

28

What do choanocytes do?

Traps particles and moves them toward cell body to be engulfed by phagocytosis

29
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What is this?

choanocyte

30

What do choanocytes pass food to for digestion?

archaeocytes

31

What do archaeocytes do?

move about the mesohyl, phagocytize particles, and can differentiate into any other type of cell

32

sclerocytes

secrete spicules

33

spongocytes

secrete spongin

34

collencytes

secrete fibrillar collagen

35

lophocytes

secrete collagen

36

What are the 3 forms of sponges?

asconoid, syconoid, leuconoid

37

How many forms of sponges are there?

3

38

What is an asconoid?

Choanocytes line the spongocoel

39
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What is this?

Asconoid

40
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What is this?

syconoid

41

What is a leuconoid?

most common canal system, most efficient canal system, seen in large sponges, has evolved many times

42
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What is this?

Leuconoid

43

How many classes of sponges are there?

4

44

What are the 4 classes of sponges?

Homoscleromorpha, calceria, demospongiae, hexactinellida

45

Class calcarea

-spicules made of CaCO3
-small, live in shallow water
-can be asconoid, syconoid, or leuconoid

46

Class Hexacrinelllida

-live in the deep sea
-very strong design

47

What type of canal system can a hexactinellida be?

leuconoid or syconoid

48

What do the spicules of Hexactinellida look like?

-6 rayed
-made of silica (glass)

49

What is the Trabecular reticulum?

Single syncytial layer covers spicule skeleton with flagellated chambers within

50

Where can a Trabecular reticulum be found?

Hexactinellida

51

How many layers can be formed by the Trabecular reticulum?

2- primary and secondary

52

What is in between the primary and secondary layers of the Trabecular reticulum?

Mesohyl

53

What type of spicules do demospongiae have?

silicous (glass), but NOT 6 rayed

54

What is the most common class of sponge?

demospongiae (over 80%)

55

What supports a demospingiae?

Spicules and Spongin

56

Where do sperm normally arise from?

choanocytes

57

What cells do gametes develop from?

choanocytes (most) and archaeocytes (some)

58

How does sperm travel?

one sponge releases sperm which enters the pores of another sponge

59

monoceious

male and female sex cells in one individual

60

What cells do eggs come from?

choanocytes or archaecytes

61

parenchymula

free-swimming larva of sponges

62

How can sponges reproduce?

sexually or asexually

63

How can sponges reproduce sexually?

release sperm and oocytes into the water, keep until it develops into a larva

64

How do sponges reproduce asexually?

bud formation or fragmentation (internal and external)

65

External buds

-small individuals that break off after attaining a certain size

66

gemmules

internal buds

67

Internal buds/gemmules

-Formed by archaeocytes that collect in mesohyl
-Coated with tough spongin and spicules
-Survive harsh environmental conditions

68
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What is this?

gemmule

69

When did sponges appear?

before the Cambrian period

70

When did glass sponges expand?

the Devonian period

71

Look at new species and evolution concepts!!!

no data

72

How many germ layers do porifera have?

0

73

sessile

doesn't move

74

Are sponges solitary or colonial

either

75

What are the chief characteristics of sponges?

pores and canal systems

76

What is he internal skeleton of sponges composed of?

spicules and spongin

77

Approximately how many demospongiae species are there?

12,900

78

Approximately how many calcarea species are there?

900

79

Approximately how many hexactinellida species are there?

1200

80

What classes of porifera have silicous spicules?

demospongiae and hexactinellida

81

What classes of porifera have calcium carbonate spicules?

calcarea

82

Do sponges tend to be marine or freshwater?

marine

83

What canal system is composed of tiny, interconnected, dead-end canals whose flagellated cells draw in water from the outside through minute pores and transfer it to a large central cavity?

syconoids

84

What literally translates to "little mouth"?

osculum

85

What canal system has radial canals?

syconoids

86

radial canal

canal that is closed to the outside and opens to the spongocoel

87

How is water drawn into radial canals?

prospyles

88

prospyle

minute opening between the incurrent canal and radial canal

89

incurrent canal

spaces surrounding the radial canals

90

What path does water follow in syconoids?

incurrent canal- prospyles- radial canal-- spongocoel-- osculum

91

apopyles

opening of a radial canal to the spongocoel

92

dermal ostium

where the incurrent canal opens to the open water

93

What are the large dots/circles located in the radial canals in the slides?

amphiblastula larvae

94

Do zygotes tend to be released into the water or retained by the parent sponge?

retained

95

Why are zygotes typically retained?

to protect them from predators- better chance of survival- lets them grow into free swimming and flagellated larvae

96

How do free swimming larvae leave the parent sponge?

through the osculum

97

What is the advantage of sessile parents producing free swimming larvae?

prevents too many sponges growing in the same area

98

How long do sponges grow for?

Almost indefinitey

99

What are gemmules made of?

clusters of amebocytes

100

What type of sponges tend to reproduce via gemmules?

freshwater sponges

101

What is the only classification of marine sponge that can reproduce via gemmule?

demospongiae (NOT ALL OF THEM)

102

micropyle

opening at the top of a gemmule

103

What do young sponges leave a gemmule through?

micropyle

104

Are gemmules a means of sexual or asexual reproduction?

asexual

105

What does a meshyl contain?

amebocytes and spicules

106

What is the body wall of an asconoid covered with

pinacocytes

107

porcyte

hollow, tuble-like cell through which water enters the spongocoel

108

ostium

incurrent canal of an asconoid that water AND food passes through

109

pinacocytes

flat epithelial like cells on the surface of a sponge

110

What does the mesohyl contain?

amebocytes and spicules

111

What is the simplest canal system?

asconoid

112

What is the flow of water through an asconoid?

incurrent canal/porocyte/ostium --spongocoel--ostium

113

amebocytes

-ameboid cells that can differentiate into almost any other type of cell

-contain enzymes important for digestion and food trnasport

-like stem cells in other animals

114

What are the possible functions of an amebocyte?

form spicules, sex cells, secrete spongin, serve as contractile cells, or aid in digestion

115

Can a sponge have more than one osculum?

yes- especially in leuconoids

116

What is the flow of water in a leuconoid?

ostium--incurrent canal--flagellated chamber--excurrent canal--osculum

117

What is spongin made of?

insoluble scleroprotein

118

prosopyle

opening from the incurrent canal into the flagellated chamber

119

apopyle- leuconoiod

internal pore through which water is forced by the beating of choanocytes

120

ameboid cell

invoolved in secretion

121

Definition of the class Calcarea

sponges with spicules of calcium carbonate; needle shaped, three or four rayed; can be asconoid, syconoid, or leuconoid; ALL MARINE

122

Definition of class Hexactinellida

sponges with three dimensional, six rayed silicous spicules; spicules often united to form a network; body tends to be cylindrical or funnel shaped; leuconoid or syconoid; ALL MARINE (deep water)

123

What are some examples of Hexactinellida?

Euplectella (Venus flowerbasket) and Hyalonema

124

Definition of Class Demospongiae

non six rayed spicules made of silicon, spongin, or both; leuconoids; two families- one freshwater, one marine

125

Example of a freshwater sponge

Spongilla

126

What are some examples of a marine Demospongiae?

Spongia and Cliona

127

What is most commonly known as a commercial bath sponge?

Spongia


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