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AP Practice Chapter 10

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Motivation

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1

The removal of a woman's ovaries may contribute to decreasing sexual interest because her natural ________ level is _______.

A) testosterone; lowered
B) testosterone; raised
C) PYY; lowered
D) PYY; raised

A) testosterone; lowered

2

One gene scan of 40,000 people worldwide identified a variant of a gene called FTO. This gene nearly doubles the risk of

A)anorexia nervosa
B)a low set point
C)erotic plasticity
D)obesity
E)bulimia

D)obesity

3

Which theory most clearly emphasizes the importance of homoeostasis in motivation?

A)instinct theory
B)drive-reduction theory
C)arousal theory
D)incentive theory

B)drive-reduction theory

4

Over the past 50 years, the incidence of anorexia nervosa has steadily increased. This is most clearly attributable to:

A)cultural ideals of beauty that increasingly encourage thinness.
B)increasing levels of childhood sexual abuse.
C)the onset of adolescence at increasingly younger ages.
D)the decreasing emphasis on maintaining stable marriages.

A)cultural ideals of beauty that increasingly encourage thinness.

5

Some students work hard in school in order to attain high grades. This best illustrates the importance of:
A)homeostasis.
B)set points.
C)refractory periods.
D)incentives.

D)incentives.

6

A starving rat will lose all interest in food if its ________ is destroyed.

A)lateral thalamus
B)ventromedial thalamus
C)lateral hypothalamus
D)ventromedial hypothalamus

C)lateral hypothalamus

7

Unlike in men, a high sex drive in women is likely to be associated with an increased same-sex attraction as well as an increased opposite-sex attraction. This best illustrates women's greater

A)Set point
B)Refractory period
C)Orgasmic dysfunction
D)Erotic plasticity

D)Erotic plasticity

8

After spending years in the ocean, a mature salmon swims up its home river to return to its birthplace. This behavior is an example of:

A)homeostasis.
B)a set point.
C)a refractory period.
D)an instinct.
E)flow.

D)an instinct.

9

The secretion of PYY _________ hunger and the secretion of orexin ________ hunger.

A)increases; decreases
B)decreases; increases
C)increases; increases
D)decreases; decreases

B)decreases; increases

10

When pregnant sheep were injected with testosterone during a critical period of fetal development, their female offspring later demonstrated

A)Homosexual behavior
B)Anorexia nervosa
C)Chain migration
D)Neophobia

A)Homosexual behavior

11

During which phase of the sexual response cycle does the refractory period begin?

A)the plateau phase
B)the resolution phase
C)the excitement phase
D)orgasm

B)the resolution phase

12

In a classic experiment, obese patients whose daily caloric intake was dramatically reduced lost only 6 percent of their weight. This limited weight loss was due, at least in part, to the fact that their dietary restriction led to a(n)

A)Elevation of their set points
B)Decrease in their secretion of ghrelin
C)Decrease in their metabolic rate
D)Elevation of their blood glucose levels

C)Decrease in their metabolic rate

13

In an attempt to lose some of the weight she has gained from binge eating, Melissa tries to compensate by using laxatives and exercising until she is exhausted. Melissa most clearly demonstrates symptoms of:

A)anorexia nervosa.
B)hypermetabolism.
C)excess leptin.
D)bulimia nervosa.
E)a refractory period.

D)bulimia nervosa.

14

The fraternal birth order effect refers to a factor associated with:

A)task leadership.
B)basal metabolic rate.
C)employee engagement.
D)refractory periods.
E)sexual orientation.

E)sexual orientation.

15

When asked what is most necessary for a happy and meaningful life, most people first mention the importance of satisfying their ________ needs.

A)achievement
B)safety
C)sexual
D)belongingness

D)belongingness

16

In poorer nations, subjective well-being is especially likely to be influenced by satisfaction with one’s ________. In wealthier countries, subjective well-being is especially likely to be influenced by satisfaction with one’s ________.

A)financial circumstances; home life
B)physical appearance; financial circumstances
C)personal achievements; personal safety
D)sexual desires; financial circumstances

A)financial circumstances; home life

17

In studies that followed hundreds of New Zealand and U.S. girls from age 5 to 18, ________ was linked to sexual activity before age 16.
A)erotic plasticity
B)basal metabolic rate
C)a father’s absence
D)bulimia nervosa

C)a father’s absence

18

Research on sexual orientation indicates that:

A)there have always been some cultures that are predominantly homosexual.
B)homosexuality is more common among women than men.
C)committed long-term love relationships are more common among lesbians than among gay men.
D)more than 10 percent of men are exclusively homosexual.

C)committed long-term love relationships are more common among lesbians than among gay men.

19

Assessing the impact of different management styles on the motivation and productivity of employees best illustrates the
professional concerns of:

A)personnel psychology.
B)clinical psychology.
C)organizational psychology.
D)human factors psychology.

C)organizational psychology.

20

Managers who build teamwork and effectively mediate employee conflicts are said to excel in:

A)structured interviews.
B)social leadership.
C)achievement motivation.
D)a directive management style

B)social leadership.

21

Our ________ serves as a gauge of how socially accepted we feel.

A)set point
B)basal metabolic rate
C)sexual response cycle
D)erotic plasticity
E)self-esteem

E)self-esteem

22

Perspiring and blood vessel constriction serve to:

A)preserve body warmth.
B)arouse drives.
C)maintain homoeostasis.
D)lower the set point.

C)maintain homoeostasis.

23

Those who view their work as a fulfilling and socially useful activity are said to view work is a:
A)job.
B)calling.
C)career.
D)set point.

B)calling.

24

Compared to ineffective managers, those who excel invest a _______ proportion of their time and effort trying to remedy their employees' deficiencies and a _______ proportion of their time and effort trying to enhance their employees' talents.

A)larger; larger
B)smaller; smaller
C)larger; smaller
D)smaller; larger

D)smaller; larger

25

A drive refers to:

A)a rigidly patterned behavior characteristic of a species and developed without practice.
B)a physiological need that usually triggers a state of motivational arousal.
C)anything that is perceived as having positive or negative value in motivating behavior.
D)an aroused or activated state that is often triggered by a physiological need.

D)an aroused or activated state that is often triggered by a physiological need.

26

The stress normally experienced by immigrants is lessened by “chain migration.” This best illustrates the importance of ________ needs.

A)self-actualization
B)achievement
C)belongingness
D)sexual

C)belongingness

27

Lack of body fluids is to thirst as ________ is to ________.

A)motivation; emotion
B)need; drive
C)homeostasis; hunger
D)incentive; instinct
E)pornography; lust

B)need; drive

28

In a complete sexual response cycle, ________ immediately precedes ________.

A)the excitement phase; orgasm
B)orgasm; the excitement phase
C)the plateau phase; orgasm
D)the excitement phase; the resolution phase
E)the plateau phase; the excitement phase

E)the plateau phase; the excitement phase

29

According to Maslow, our need for ________ must be met before we are prompted to satisfy our need for ________.

A)food; love
B)self-esteem; adequate clothing
C)self-actualization; economic security
D)political freedom; economic security
E)religious fulfillment; adequate housing

A)food; love

30

Electrical stimulation of the ________ causes an animal to ________.

A)lateral hypothalamus; stop eating
B)ventromedial hypothalamus; start eating
C)lateral hypothalamus; start eating
D)ventromedial
E)hypothalamus; overeat

C)lateral hypothalamus; start eating

31

Over the past quarter century, Americans' tendency to agree that extramarital sex is always wrong has ________ and Americans' tendency to agree that homosexuality should be an acceptable alternative life-style has ________.

A)increased; decreased
B)decreased; decreased
C)increased; increased
D)decreased; decreased

C)increased; increased

32

The incidence of male homosexuality has been found to be slightly higher than usual among:

A)physicians.
B)professional athletes.
C)residents of small villages.
D)men who have older brothers.

D)men who have older brothers.

33

A thick, juicy hamburger is to hunger as ________ is to ________.

A)need; drive
B)incentive; drive
C)homeostasis; thirst
D)incentive; instinct

B)incentive; drive

34

By scripting specific job-relevant questions to be asked of all those applying for a particular work position, a personnel psychologist is most clearly developing a framework for:

A)Theory X management.
B)the experience of flow.
C)transformational leadership.
D)structured interviews.
E)360-degree feedback.

D)structured interviews.

35

Employee achievement motivation is most likely to be facilitated by:

A)unstructured interviews.
B)leniency errors.
C)participative management.
D)Theory X managers.

C)participative management.

36

A woman's estrogen levels peak during:

A)the refractory period.
B)the set point.
C)menstruation.
D)ovulation.

D)ovulation.

37

Premarital sexual activity is higher among American teens who:

A)have college-educated rather than high school-educated parents.
B)frequently rather than seldom attend religious services.
C)earn high rather than low grades in school.
D)consume rather than abstain from alcohol.

D)consume rather than abstain from alcohol.

38

Managers with a social leadership style would be most likely to:

A)ensure that individual employees contribute their fair share to group projects.
B)discourage employees from critically discussing controversial company policies.
C)inform employees of the exact deadlines for the completion of work projects.
D)mediate a personal dispute between two argumentative employees.
E)provide employees with relatively easy work assignments.

D)mediate a personal dispute between two argumentative employees.

39

A small proportion of the contributors to any field produce most of its accomplishments despite the fact that their less productive professional colleagues are fairly comparable in raw ability. This best illustrates the importance of:

A)basal metabolic rate.
B)achievement motivation.
C)set points.
D)homeostasis.
E)performance appraisal.

B)achievement motivation.

40

Need is to drive as ________ is to _______.

A)food deprivation; hunger
B)motivation; incentive
C)thirst; basal metabolic rate
D)instinct; incentive

A)food deprivation; hunger

41

Insulin is to the pancreas as ghrelin is to:

A)the hypothalamus.
B)fat cells.
C)the stomach.
D)the liver.

C)the stomach.

42

42. The secretion of leptin _________ hunger and the secretion of orexin ________ hunger.

A)increases; decreases
B)decreases; increases
C)increases; increases
D)decreases; decreases

B)decreases; increases

43

A Columbia University study found that teens who took vows pledging virginity until marriage were subsequently:

A)more likely than other adolescents to suffer health problems.
B)less likely than other adolescents to experience positive self-esteem.
C)just as likely as other adolescents to have intercourse before marriage.
D)less likely than other adolescents to use contraceptives if they did have intercourse before marriage.

D)less likely than other adolescents to use contraceptives if they did have intercourse before marriage.

44

The fraternal birth order effect has been explained in terms of:

A)observational learning.
B)erotic plasticity.
C)refractory periods.
D)maternal immune responses.
E)drive-reduction theory.

D)maternal immune responses.

45

Work is most likely to satisfy the higher-level needs in Maslow's hierarchy if it is associated with:

A)frequent pay raises.
B)the experience of flow.
C)360-degree feedback.
D)structured interviews.

B)the experience of flow.

46

Evaluations of job applicants based on informal interviews are ________ predictors of future job performance than handwriting analysis and ________ predictors than aptitude tests.

A)better; better
B)worse; worse
C)better; worse
D)worse; better

C)better; worse

47

A tendency to assume that employees view work as a job rather than a calling is most characteristic of:

A)Theory X managers.
B)Theory Y mangers.
C)task leaders.
D)social leaders.

A)Theory X managers.

48

By motivating us to satisfy our physical needs, hunger and thirst serve to:

A)raise the set point.
B)maintain homeostasis.
C)lower blood insulin levels.
D)shorten the refractory period.

B)maintain homeostasis.

49

Who emphasized that people whose needs for safety are unmet will not be preoccupied with satisfying their needs for love?

A)Kinsey
B)Maslow
C)Masters and Johnson
D)Freud
E)Darwin

B)Maslow

50

Orexin is an appetite hormone secreted by the:

A)hypothalamus.
B)pancreas.
C)stomach.
D)liver.

A)hypothalamus.

51

Destruction of the ________ causes an animal to ________.

A)lateral hypothalamus; overeat
B)lateral hypothalamus; start eating
C)ventromedial hypothalamus; overeat
D)ventromedial hypothalamus; stop eating

C)ventromedial hypothalamus; overeat

52

52.The concept of a set point is relevant to understanding the experience of:

A)hunger.
B)sexual motivation.
C)achievement motivation.
D)the need to belong.

A)hunger.

53

Lindsey is extremely afraid of becoming obese even though she is underweight. She often checks her body in the mirror for any signs of fat and refuses to eat most foods because she insists they are fatty or high in calories. Lindsey most clearly demonstrates symptoms of:

A)a refractory period.
B)bulimia nervosa.
C)an abnormally high set point.
D)anorexia nervosa.
E)excess PYY.

B)bulimia nervosa.

54

Bulimia patients are most likely to come from families with an unusually high incidence of:

A)alcoholism and depression.
B)sexual abuse.
C)religious involvement.
D)eating disorders.

A)alcoholism and depression.

55

The accuracy of Alfred Kinsey's survey findings regarding American sexual practices in the 1940s is highly questionable because:

A)few of his survey respondents were very well educated.
B)he used structured rather than unstructured interviews to gather information.
C)his survey respondents were paid large sums of money for participating in the research.
D)his leading questions may have encouraged false participant responses.

D)his leading questions may have encouraged false participant responses.

56

Sleep researchers have discovered that:

A)most dreams have explicit sexual content.
B)genital arousal seldom occurs when people are dreaming.
C)nocturnal emissions are more likely when orgasm has not occurred recently.
D)men and women are equally likely to experience orgasm in response to sexually explicit dreams.

C)nocturnal emissions are more likely when orgasm has not occurred recently.

57

Compared to sexual intercourse rates among teens in North America, the rates among teens are ________ in Western Europe and ________ in Asia.

A)lower; lower
B)higher; higher
C)lower; higher
D)higher; lower

D)higher; lower

58

Regardless of their sexual orientation, women are more likely than men to be aroused by both male and female sexual images. This best illustrates gender differences in:

A)set points.
B)erotic plasticity.
C)refractory periods.
D)basal metabolic rate.
E)the hierarchy of needs.

B)erotic plasticity.

59

Which of the following is not true with respect to sexual orientation?

A)Virtually all cultures in all times
B)have been predominantly heterosexual.
C)The environmental factors that influence sexual orientation are presently unknown.
D)Men who report a change from a homosexual to a heterosexual orientation typically achieve an exclusively opposite-sex attraction.
E)Homosexuality rates are higher than average among the identical twin brothers of homosexuals.

D)Men who report a change from a homosexual to a heterosexual orientation typically achieve an exclusively opposite-sex attraction.

60

Personnel psychology is one of the main subfields of:

A)personality psychology.
B)clinical psychology.
C)industrial-organizational psychology.
D)social psychology.
E)cognitive psychology

C)industrial-organizational psychology.

61

For each performance review, Professor Donnell is evaluated by her students, colleagues, department chair, and research assistants. This best illustrates:

A)homeostasis.
B)Theory X management.
C)the experience of flow.
D)human factors psychology.
E) 360-degree feedback.

E) 360-degree feedback.

62

Compared to ineffective managers, those who are effective are more likely to:

A)make employees aware that their work performance is being monitored continuously.
B)focus equal attention on the strengths and weaknesses of workers' performances.
C)give employees positive reinforcement when they perform well.
D)do all of the above.

C)give employees positive reinforcement when they perform well.


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