Review Questions The Endocrine System

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The Endocrine System
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1

The major stimulus for release of parathyroid hormone is:

(a)hormonal
(b)humoral
(c)neural

(b)humoral

2

The anterior pituitary secrets all but:

(a)antidiuretic
(b)growth hormone
(c)gonadotropins
(d)TSH

(a)antidiuretic

3

A hormone not involved in glucose metabolism is:
(a) glucagon
(b) cortisone
(c) aldosterone
(d) insulin

(c) aldosterone

4

Parathyroid hormone:
(a) increases bone formation and lowers blood calcium levels
(b) increases calcium excretion from the body
(c) decreases calcium absorption from the gut
(d) demineralizes bone and raises blood calcium levels

(d) demineralizes bone and raises blood calcium levels

5

Important metabolic hormone many of its effects mediated by IGFs

(a) Aldosterone
(b) Antidiuretic hormone
(c) Growth hormone
(d) Luteinizing
(e) Oxytocin
(f) Prolactin
(g) T4 and T3
(h) TSH

(c) Growth hormone

6

cause the kidneys to conserve water and/or salt (2 choices)

(a) Aldosterone
(b) Antidiuretic hormone
(c) Growth hormone
(d) Luteinizing
(e) Oxytocin
(f) Prolactin
(g) T4 and T3
(h) TSH

(a) Aldosterone
(b) Antidiuretic hormone

7

stimulates milk production

(a) Aldosterone
(b) Antidiuretic hormone
(c) Growth hormone
(d) Luteinizing
(e) Oxytocin
(f) Prolactin
(g) T4 and T3
(h) TSH

(f) Prolactin

8

tropic hormone that stimulates the gonads to secrete sex hormone

(a) Aldosterone
(b) Antidiuretic hormone
(c) Growth hormone
(d) Luteinizing
(e) Oxytocin
(f) Prolactin
(g) T4 and T3
(h) TSH

(d) Luteinizing

9

increases uterine contractions

(a) Aldosterone
(b) Antidiuretic hormone
(c) Growth hormone
(d) Luteinizing
(e) Oxytocin
(f) Prolactin
(g) T4 and T3
(h) TSH

(e) Oxytocin

10

major metabolic hormones of the body

(a) Aldosterone
(b) Antidiuretic hormone
(c) Growth hormone
(d) Luteinizing
(e) Oxytocin
(f) Prolactin
(g) T4 and T3
(h) TSH

(g) T4 and T3

11

causes reabsorption of sodium ions by the kidneys

(a) Aldosterone
(b) Antidiuretic hormone
(c) Growth hormone
(d) Luteinizing
(e) Oxytocin
(f) Prolactin
(g) T4 and T3
(h) TSH

(a) Aldosterone

12

tropic hormone that stimulates the thyroids gland to secrete thyroid hormone

(a) Aldosterone
(b) Antidiuretic hormone
(c) Growth hormone
(d) Luteinizing
(e) Oxytocin
(f) Prolactin
(g) T4 and T3
(h) TSH

(h) TSH

13

secreted by the posterior pituitary (two choices)

(a) Aldosterone
(b) Antidiuretic hormone
(c) Growth hormone
(d) Luteinizing
(e) Oxytocin
(f) Prolactin
(g) T4 and T3
(h) TSH

(b) Antidiuretic hormone
(e) Oxytocin

14

the only steroid hormone in the list

(a) Aldosterone
(b) Antidiuretic hormone
(c) Growth hormone
(d) Luteinizing
(e) Oxytocin
(f) Prolactin
(g) T4 and T3
(h) TSH

(a) Aldosterone

15

A hypodermic injection of epinephrine would:

(a) increase heart rate, increase blood pressure, dilate the bronchi of the lungs and increase peristalsis
(b) decrease heart rate, decrease blood pressure, constrict the bronchi, and increase peristalsis
(c) decrease heart rate, increase blood pressure, constrict the bronchi, and decrease peristalsis
(d) increase heart rate, increase blood pressure, dilate the bronchi, and decrease persitalsis

(d) increase heart rate, increase blood pressure, dilate the bronchi, and decrease persitalsis

16

Testosterone is to the male as which hormone is to the female?

(a) luteinizing hormone
(b) progesterone
(c) estrogen
(d) prolactin

(c) estrogen

17

If anterior pituitary secretion is deficient in a growing child, the child will:

(a) develop acromegaly
(b) become a dwarf but have fairly normal body proportions
(c) mature sexually at an earlier than normal age
(d) be in constant danger of becoming dehydrated

(b) become a dwarf but have fairly normal body proportions

18

If there is adequate carbohydrate intake, secretion of insulin results in:

(a) lower blood glucose levels
(b) increased cell utilization of glucose
(c) storage of glycogen
(d) all of these

(d) all of these

19

Hormones:
(a) Are produced by exocrine glands
(b) are carried to all parts of the body in blood
(c) remain at constant concentration in the blood
(d) affect only non-hormone-producing organs

(b) are carried to all parts of the body in blood

20

Some hormones act by:

(a) increasing the synthesis of enzymes
(b) converting an inactive enzyme into an active enzyme
(c) affecting only specific target organs
(d) all of these

(d) all of these

21

Absence of thyroid hormone would result in:

(a) increased heart rate and increased force of heart contraction
(b) depression of the CNS and lethargy
(c) exophthalmos
(d) high metabolic rate

(b) depression of the CNS and lethargy

22

Medullary chromaffin cells are found in the:

(a) parathyroid gland
(b) anterior pituitary gland
(c) adrenal gland
(d) pineal gland

(c) adrenal gland

23

14. Atrial natriuretic peptide secreted by the heart has exactly the opposite function of this hormone secreted by the zona glomerulosa:

(a) antidiuretic hormone
(b) epinephrine
(c) calcitonin
(d) aldosterone
(e) androgens

(d) aldosterone

24

Define Hormone

A substance, usually a peptide or steroid, produced by one tissue and conveyed by the bloodstream to another to effect physiological activity, such as growth or metabolism.

25

Which type of hormone receptor – plasma membrane bound or intercellular – would be expected to provide the most long-lived response to hormone binding and why?

Intracellular receptor responses would be longer since they create a hormone-receptor complex which stimulates the production of mRNA, which then creates proteins. This complex must be degraded over time. Also, the entire process takes longer.

26

Describe the body location of each of the following endocrine organs: anterior pituitary, pineal gland, pancreas, ovaries, testes, and adrenal glands. (b) List the hormones produced by each organ.

• Anterior Pituitary: Just under the hypothalamus, produces hormones such as TSH, FSH, LH, ACTH, GH, and PRL.

• Pineal Gland: Tiny, pine cone-shaped, hangs from the roof of the third ventricle in the diencephalon in the brain, endocrine function is still a mystery, but releases melatonin (sleep cycle).

• Pancreas: Partially behind the stomach in the abdomen, produces glucagon and insulin.

• Ovaries connected to the fallopian tubes in the female, produce steroid sex hormones identical to those produced by adrenal cortical cells. Estrogen and Progesterone

• Testes hangs in a sack called the scrotum, produce steroid sex hormones identical to those produced by adrenal cortical cells. Testosterone

• Adrenal Glands: A Pyramid-shaped organ on top of the kidneys, inner is adrenal medulla which releases EPI and NE, outer is adrenal cortex and synthesizes corticosteroids. All adrenal hormones help us cope with stressful situations.

27

Name two endocrine glands (or regions) that are important in the stress response, and explain why they are important.

• The adrenal medulla secretes epinepherine (aka adrenaline) that causes an acute stress response throught out the body, such as:
o-increased heart rate
o-opening of the airways
o-decreased digestion, as well as decreased blood flow to digestive organs
o-increased blood flow to skeletal muscles
o-dilation of the pupils to allow more light in the eye, as well as accommodation for far vision
o-increased blood pressure
all of these measures help prepare the body to run away or to confront the stressful situation (fight or flight)

• The adrenal cortex secretes several endocrine biomolecules, but the two most important for stress response ar e cortisol and aldosterone.
o Cortisol helps mobilize energy stores to be used during stress. For example, cortisol acts to break down muscle tissue and build glucose, effectively increasing the blood sugar concentration to be utilized by the brain and any other percieved stressed organ.
o Aldosterone helps to raise the blood volume by conserving water and salt. These measures raise the blood pressure, which is a stress response: before modern civilization, stress usually meant blood loss, and a dangerous drop in blood pressure. So by working to preserve the pressure, the body can prevent circulatory shock

28

The anterior pituitary is often referred to the as the master endocrine organ, but it, too, has a “master.” What controls the release of the anterior pituitary hormones?

The hypothalamus is the main controller of both the anterior and posterior pituitary glands. The anterior pituitary hormones are released because of releasing or inhibiting hormones made in the hypothalamus.

29

The posterior pituitary is not really an endocrine gland. Why not? What is it?

The posterior pituitary or neurohypophysis is not a separate organ, but an extension of the hypothalamus. It is composed largely of the axons of hypothalamic neurons which extend downward as a large bundle behind the anterior pituitary. It also forms the so-called pituitary stalk, which appears to suspend the anterior gland from the hypothalamus

30

Endemic goiter is not really the result of a malfunctioning thyroid gland. What does cause it?

An iodine defiency in your diet, the Thyroid gland makes up for it by growing larger.

31

How are the hyperglycemia and lipidemia of insulin deficiency linked?

Hyperglycemia is the result of insufficient insulin secretion by the pancreas, resulting in high blood glucose levels and the loss of glucose from the body in the urine (glycosuria). When sugars cannot be used as cellular fuel, more fats are mobilized, resulting in high fatty acid levels in the blood, a condition called Lipdemia.

32

Name a hormone secreted by a muscle cell and two hormones secreted by neurons.

The cardiac muscle secretes atrial natriuretic peptide - ANP). Neurons secrete neurohormones, ADH (antidiuretic hormone) and oxytocin

33

List some problems that elderly people might have as a result of decreasing hormone production.

As people age, they can have issues related to decreased hormone production. These can include less bone density, vaginal dryness, mood swings, depression, cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, and urinary incompetence.

34

Critical thinking
Richard Neis had symptoms of excessive secretion of PTH (High blood calcium levels), and his physicians were certain he had a parathyroid gland tumor. Yet when surgery was performed on his neck, the surgeons could not find the parathyroid glands at all. Where should the surgeons look next to find the tumorous parathyroid gland?

The surgeon should next look to the thorax to find the tumorous parathyroid gland

35

Critical thinking
Mary Morgan has just been brought into the emergency room of City General Hospital. She is perspiring profusely and is breathing rapidly and irregularly. Her breath smells like acetone (sweet and fruity), and her blood glucose tests out at 650 mg/100 ml of blood. She is in acidosis. What hormone should be administered, and why? (4 points).

Insulin should be injected because ketones accumulated in her blood, which caused her blood pH to drop resulting in acidosis, and the ketone bodies began to spill into her urine (pg. 622in Marieb)

36

Critical thinking
Johnny, a 5-year-old boy, has been growing by leaps and bounds; his height is 100% above normal range for age. He has been complaining of headaches and vision problems. A CT scan reveals a large pituitary tumor.
(a) What hormone is being secreted in excess?
(b) What condition will Johnny exhibit if corrective measures are not taken?
(c) What is the probable cause of his headaches and visual problems? (4 points).

(a). The pituitary tumor is secreting out excessive amounts of the growth hormone.

(b). Johnny will exhibit structural abnormities, namely gigantism, if the proper corrective measures are not taken.

(c). The probable cause of Johnny's headaches and visual problems is that the pituitary gland is protruding inferiorly and compressing the optic chiasma (pg. 593-604 in Marieb)

37

Critical thinking
Sean, a 42 year old single father, goes to his physician complaining of nausea and chronic fatigue. He reports having felt fatigued and listless for about half a year, but he had attributed this to stress. He has lost considerable weight and strangely, his skin has a healthy tan, even though he spends long hours at work and rarely ventures outside. His doctor finds very low blood pressure and a rapid, weak pulse. Blood tests show that Sean does not have anemia, but his plasma glucose, cortisol, and Na+ are low, and his plasma K+ is high. His doctor orders an ACTH stimulation test, in which Sean's secretion of cortisol is measured after he is given a synthetic form of ACTH.
(a) What would account for Sean's low plasma Na+ and high plasma K+?
(b) What is the reason for doing an ACTH stimulation test?
(c) What gland is primarily affected if ACTH does not cause a normal elevation of cortisol secretion?
(d) What gland is primarily affected if ACTH does cause an elevation of cortisol secretion? (4 points).

(a). Low levels of the mineralocorticoid aldosterone would account for Sean's low plasma Na+ and high plasma K+.

(b). Sean was given an ACTH stimulation test so that the doctor can see how well the adrenal glands respond to the hormone.

(c).The adrenal cortex is primarily affected if ACTH does not cause a normal elevation of cortisol secretion.

(d).The pituitary gland is primarily affected if ACTH does cause an elevation of cortisol secretion
(pg. 614-18 in Marieb).

38

Critical thinking
Roger Proulx has severe arthritis and has been taking prednisone (a glucocorticoid) for two months. He isn't feeling well, complains of repeated, “colds,” and is extremely puffy (edematous). Explain the reason for these symptoms. (4 points).

The reasons for Mr. Proulx symptoms is that he might've been given a much higher dose than those found in the body of glucocorticoid. Or he may have a Cushing's disease, caused by a pituitary tumor that's releasing too much ACTH, by an ACTH releasing malignancy of the lungs, pancreas or kidneys, or by a tumor of the adrenal cortex (pg. 617-18 in Marieb).


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